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LILIES AND ORCHIDS

LILIES AND ORCHIDS

A SERIES OF DRAWINGS IN COLOR OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING AND BEAUTIFUL SPECIES OF THESE FAMILIES TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIVE TEXT

BY

ROSINA C. BOARDMAN

NEW YORK

ROBERT GRIER COOKE

INCORPORATtD

MDCDVI

Copyright, /i)of>, ty ROBERT GRIER COOKE, Inc

RcilH-rt Giier Cooke, lucorporate,!. New York

FORI-.WORI)

In this little book 1 have endeavored to set ff)rlh an informal sketch of three flower fami- lies growing in the United States, cast of the Rocky Mountains, and in Canada, together with a few stray relatives from the Pacific slope, illustrated by faithful color studies of the more prominent e.\am|)les.

R. C. H. New York, 1906

LILES AND ORCHIDS

PLATE I

WOOD ].II,V

Liliiim Philaddphkiim

LILIES

THE Family of Lilies is one of the most interesting and one of the handsomest flower groups which we possess. At first it was very large, for many closely connected species were included; but it swelled to such dimensions that the botanists were forced to sub- divide it more and more, until now it is comparatively small. The latest division (which every one has not yet adopted) is the grouping of the Bellworts, Hellebore, Blazing-Star and a few others in the Bunch-Flower Family; the Green-Briers and their climbing relatives in the Smilax Family; and the Asparagus, Solomon's Seal and those similar in the Lily-of-the- Valley Family. At present it is only with the latter and with the Lily Family Proper that we will concern ourselves.

THE LILY FAMILY

The Lily Family Proper is made up of leafy-stemmed herbs, growing from., bulbs or corms. The leaves are always parallel-veined and simple. The flowers are regular and generally perfect, having a perianth of six even segments, sometimes connected; six stamens, with two-celled anthers, growing from the bases of the seg- ments; and a three-celled pistil, with a generally three- lobed stigma, at the end of a long style. The fruit is an oblong capsule. The seed differs according to the variety.

PLATE I

Wood Lily, Red Lily, Lilium Philadelphicum. Root. A bulb of fleshy scales. Stem. Simple, i°-3° high. Leaves. Narrow, pointed, in whorls. Flowers. Large, showy, erect, 1-5, terminal, scarlet and orange. Perianth. Of broad segments, narrowing be- low, purple-dotted within. Stamens (a). Dark red. Pistil (/)). With a head-like stigma. Seeds. Long, with narrow wings.

This is one of our most showy and beautiful flowers. It grows in dry woods and salt marshes, from Canada to North Carolina, from June to August. I have found very small specimens, not over 5' high, on Nantucket Island.

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PLATE I. Reduced about H from Life Slie Wood Lily, Lilium Pkiladeipkicum

PLATE II

WILD VKLI.OW I.II.V

Lilium Canadcnsc

Western Red Lily, L. iimbellatum, is much like the Wood Lily, but smaller and more slender, with linear leaves. It blooms in dry soil during June and July, from Ohio to Northwest Territory and south to Arkansas.

Southern Red Lily, L. Catesbaei, is much the same, with slender, small, alternate leaves and recurved, pointed segments. It grows in wet ground in summer, from North Carolina to Florida.

Wild Yellow Lily, Field Lily, Canada Lily, Liliuni Canadensc. Root. Bulbous. Stem. Simple, 2°-5° high, stout. Leaves. Lanceolate, in whorls. Flowers. Terminal, 1-16, drooping on long recurved stalks, bright yellow and orange, purple-dotted. Peri- anth.— With recurved segments (not narrowing below). Stamens (a). Red-brown. Pistil (h). With a three- lobed, head-shaped stigma. Seeds. Flat, horizontal, numerous.

These gorgeous flowers bloom in early summer, in fields and swamps, from Nova Scotia to Alabama and west to the Mississippi. They might indeed be "the lilies of the field " of the New Testament, for the glor\' of Solomon would pale beside them. To see a field of them waving their golden bells above the tall grasses is a sight to be remembered. There are many such fields in the Berk- shire Hills.

Lest we come to think that the brilliant liiia are the only important members of this family, we will stop here to mention four small genera.

Leucocrinum, Leucocrinum monlanum, is a low Western herb, with long, grass-like inner leaves and scale-like outer ones, all from the root. The flowers are white, tube-shaped below, divided and salver- shaped above. The anthers are coiled. It blooms in late spring.

An-drostephium, Androstephium cocndeum, is some- what the same, with blue flowers in an umbel, on a long scape. The anthers are straight. It grows on prairies, from Kansas southward, in early spring.

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PLATB n. Reduced H from Life Sue Canada Lily. Lilium Caiiadrnse

PLATE III

tirk's cap l.ll.V Liliiim stiprrbum

Wild Hyacinth, Quamasia hyacinthina, is an herb, with grass-like root-leaves and a tall scape of blue or white, racemed flowers, with narrow, separate segments. It grows along streams, from Pennsylvania to Alabama and west to Minnesota, in spring.

Star-of-Bethlehem, Ornithogalum iimhcllaliim, is somewhat the same, with flowers, white within and green without, clustered in a corymb. The leaves have a light midrib.

Drooping Star-of-Bethlehem, O. nutans, has nod- ding, white, racemed flowers.

These both bloom in late spring and are Europeans escaped from gardens.

Turk's-Cap Lily, LUium superhum. Root. A globe- like bulb. Stem. Simple, stout, 3°-8° high. Leaves. Lanceolate, in whorls or alternate. Flowers. Ter- minal, 3-40, nodding on long flower-stalks, large, showy, orange-red, purple-dotted. Perianth. Of lanceolate segments, strongly recurved. Stamens {a). Burnt- orange-red. Pistil {h). With a head-like stigma. Seeds. Flat, numerous, horizontal.

This giant among flowering herbs gives to a midsummer meadow or marsh a truly regal splendor. It is much more beautiful than the Tiger-Lily, which it resembles, for it is much more elegant in line and color. Authorities disagree about the color. I have always found it red. It ranges from Maine to North Carolina and west to Minnesota.

TiGER-LiLY, L. tigrinum, is like the Turk's-Cap, but yellower and coarser. Its stem is stout and almost black, with bulblets growing in the axils of the leaves. It is a native of China and Japan, escaping from gardens in this country and blooming in summer.

Carolina Lily, L. Carolinianum, is also like the Turk's-Cap, with orange-red, nodding flowers and re- curved, pointed segments. It is smaller and more slen- der, and blooms south of Virginia in August.

Although I am not speaking of many far Western flowers, I cannot refrain from picturing two charming Californians, the Yosemite Tiger-Lily and the Washing- ton Lily. ,

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PLATE III Reduced aboat H from Life Slic Turk's Cap Lily. /J/,um suptrbum

PLATE IV

YOSEMITE TIGKR-LILY

Lilium parvinn

YosEMiTE Tiger-Lily, Lilium parvum (Kellogg). Root. Bulbous and fibrous. Stem. Simple, 3°-8° high. Leaves. Ovate, pale green, thinner than other lilies, in whorls or alternate above. Flowers. Small, f'-i' long, several-flowered, on long, undulating flower- stalks, scarlet and orange, purple-dotted. Perianth. Of oval segments, slightly recurved. Stamens ((7). Dark red. Pistil (b). With a hcad-hke stigma. Seeds.— Flat.

The small, gem-like flowers of this beautiful little lily, waving on their long stalks, are particularly attractive. I found them in early August on the upper trails of the Yosemite Valley, growing amid tall grasses and small shrubs.

Asa Gray's Lily, L. Grayi, seems to be rather like the last, with larger flowers and stiff'cr leaves. It blooms in July and August, on the peaks of Virginia and North Carolina.

Two genera, not immediately recognisable as lilies, follow :

Grape-Hyacinth, Muscari botryoides, is an herb with long, grass-like leaves from the root, and a short, thick raceme of very small, blue, slightly fragrant flowers. The flowers have a globular, one-pieced perianth, with six small teeth. The clusters much resemble a bunch of grapes, hence the name.

Starch Grape-Hyacinth, M . racemosum, is similar, with narrower leaves and oblong, starch-scented flowers.

Both these plants are Europeans escaped from gardens, and bloom in spring.

Star-Grass, Colic-Root, AUiris jarinosa, has a rosette of pale, lanceolate leaves at the root and a tall scape topped by a long raceme of small, floury-looking, bell-shaped flowers, erect, roughish, and white, with a six- toothed, one-pieced perianth. This plant grows east of the Mississippi in early summer. A yellow form of it sometimes appears South.

Yellow Colic-Root, .4. aurea, is similar. It has shorter leaves and shorter yellow flowers. It blooms south from New York in early summer.

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PLATE IV. Kedacnl about y^ from Lire Stif Yosemite Tiger Lily. Lilium parvum

PLATE V

WASIII.NdTON I.II.V

Li/ill III Washiiij^loiiiaiia

Washington Lily, Lilium Washingtoniana. Root. As other lilies. Stem. Simple, 4°-8° high. Leaves. Small, in whorls or alternate above. Flowers. Large, in a terminal cluster, white, finely dotted with purple and pink. Perianth. Of narrowly oblong, blunt segments, somewhat recurved. Stamens {a). Pistil (/)). With a head-like stigma.

These charming white flowers on their tall, stiff stems are as much more delicate than the Bermuda lilies as the Turk's-Caps are than the Tiger-Lilies. I found them growing in the primeval forests of the Mariposa, in Cali- fornia, in July.

Day-Lily, Hermerocallis jiilva, together with the Yellow Day-Lily, H. flava, are summer foreigners es- caped from our gardens. They have large, grass-like, channelled root-leaves and tawny-orange or yellow flowers, growing several on a scape.

The Garlics or Onions also belong to the Lily Family. They all have round or oval, odorous bulbs, root-leaves, and small, separate-segmented flowers grow- ing at the summit of a scape in a many-flowered umbel. Beneath are 2-3 membranous bracts. They are not at- tractive plants.

Wild Leek, Allium Iricoccuiii, has elliptic, early fading leaves and white flowers. It blooms in early summer, east of the Mississippi and north of North Carolina.

Chives, A. Schoenoprasum, is a Northern variety, with hollow, linear leaves and pink flowers.

Nodding Wild Onion, A . ccrnuum, has nodding, white, rose or purple flowers and flat, channelled, linear leaves. It ranges over most of the United States and Canada.

Prairie Wild Onion, A . stellatum, is much the same, with rose-colored, erect flowers. It blooms in summer, on the Western plains.

Wild Garlic, Field Garlic, Crow Garlic, A. vineale, is a troublesome weed from Europe, naturalized in the Middle States. It has hollow leaves and purple and green flowers, sometimes replaced by bulblets, tipped with a long hair-hke appendage.

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PLATE VI

YKLLOW .\I)I)I;r"s TOXC.rE

Erythronium A mcricanum

Meadow Gaelic, A. Canadense, is similar, with white or pink flowers and a fibrous bulb, as have those follow- ing. This blooms east of the Mississippi.

Wild Onion, .4. mutabi/e, has flat, hnear leaves and white or pink flowers without bulblets. It grows South and West in early summer.

Nuttall's Wild Onion, A . NuttaUii, has very narrow, short leaves and white or rose flowers. It grows in spring, on the Western prairies.

Fraser's Wild Onion, A. re/iculatum, is similar. It blooms in summer, west of the Mississippi.

Yellow False Garlic, Nothoscordum bivalve, is much like the Alliums, but lacks their scent, and has yellow flowers. It blooms South and West in early spring and summer.

PLATE VI

Yellow Adder's-Tongue, Dog's-Tooth Violet, Erythronium Americannm. Root. A corm. Stem. Simple, 6'-i° high. Leaves. Oblanceolate, smooth, generally mottled with brown, 2, opposite, or i on the flowerless plants. Flowers. Large, solitary, terminal, pale yellow, rarely purplish or white, dotted. Perianth. Of linear, slightly recurved segments. Stamens {a). Pistil {b). With a three-lobed stigma.

This dainty little lily, with its drooping flower and mottled leaves, carpets acres of moist woodland, from Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Arkansas, from March to May. The name Dog's-Tooth Violet is particularly inappropriate.

White Adder's-Tongue, E. albidum, is similar, with white, bluish or purplish flowers. It flourishes west of the Mississippi, but is not common East.

Midland Adder's-Tongue, E. mesachoreum, grows with the last. It has narrower leaves, not mottled, and lavender flowers.

Minnesota Adder's-Tongue, E. propullans, blooms in May. It has smaller pink blossoms and slightly mot- tled leaves.

Purple Fritillaria, Fritillaria alropitrpurea, is a lily with alternate, linear leaves and bell-shaped, nodding, 6

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Wild Onion, A. mutabile, lia white or pink flowers without bulbli and West in early summer.

Nuttall's Wild Okion, A. Nuttal/ti, ir short leaves and white or rose flowers. It gn on the Western prairies.

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-■:.- plants. Flowers.— Large, .-;...., ,. .

pale yellow, rarely purplish or white, dotted. Perianth. Of linear, slightly recurved segments. Stamens (a). Pistil fft).— With a three-Iobed stigma.

This dainty little lily, with its drooping flower and mottled leaves, carpets acres of moist woodland, from Nova .Scotia to Florida and west to Arkansas from March to May. The name Dog's-Tooth V! '' icularly

inappropriate.

WiuTE Adder's-Tongue, E. alhiduin. ib .-mniar, with white, bluish or purplish flowers. It flourishes west of the Mississippi, but is not common East.

Midland Adder's-Tongue, E. mesachoreum, grows with the last. It has narrower leaves, not mottled, and lavender flowers.

Minnesota Adder's-Tongue, E. propullans, blooms in May. It has smaller pink blossoms and slightly mot lie: leaves.

PrRPLE Fritillaria, Fritillarid alropurpurea, is a lib with alternate, linear leaves and bell-shaped, noddinj^;, 6

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PLATE VI. Life Sii«

Yellow Adder's Tongue. Erythronium Americanum

PLATE VII

A NUTTAI.I.'S MARIPOSA I.II.Y

Calocho his Niillallii

B GrNNISOX's MARIPOSA LILY

Calochorlus Guiuiisoni

purple or purplish-green flowers with separate segments. It blooms in early summer, from North Dakota and Wyoming westward.

PLATE VII, A

Nuttall's Mariposa Lily, Calochortus NuitallU. Root. A corm. Stem. Branched, slender, 3'-i5' high. Leaves. Grass-like, alternate. Flowers. Large, showy, white. Perianth. The three outer segments (or sepals) are lanceolate, greenish-white; the three inner (or petals) are rather wedge-shaped and recurved, white or lavender, with a yellowish base, above which is a purple spot. Stamens (<). Arrow-shaped. Pistil id). With a thrce-lobed stigma.

So graceful and ethereal is this fair flower, swaying on its slender stalk among the tall grasses, that it seems almost unearthly. It blooms from South Dakota west to California, from June to August.

plate VII, B

Gunnison's Mariposa Lily, C. Gunnisoni. Root. A corm. Stem. Often simple, as above. Leaves. As above, with incurved edges. Flowers. Large, showy, white. Perianth. The sepals as above, the ]jetals white or lavender, with a purple band across the centre within, yellowish and hairy below. Stamens (a). With oval anthers. Pistil {h). With a three-lobed stigma.

This plant is much like its Mariposa sister. It grows as far south as New Mexico and blooms in midsummer, as does the other. I found it in a meadow in the Canyon of the Grand, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado.

Another Western genus is the Yucca, which has hollow, spike-like leaves, with fibrous threads hanging from their margins. The flowers are large, creamy-white, have separate segments, and droop from a tall, dense, terminal cluster. They bloom in spring and early summer.

Spanish Bayonet, Yucca baccata, is the largest. It is sometimes high. Its flowers are very large and its fruit edible.

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.nison's Mariposa Lily, C. Gunnisoni. Root. Stem. Often simple, as above. Leaves.— As with incurved edges. Flowers. Larf^c. ?bnv.y, Perianth. The sepals as above, the > ■■df>r, with a purple band across the ce:

nd hairy below. Stamens [a). Wji; . l1 ■,stil ib). With a three lobed slit;ma.

lenls, aiul dioop lioni a lall, tltii- ■V bloom in spring and early su

Yucca haccata, is the largest. It Us flowers are very large and its

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PLATE Vll. Reduced about S from Life Sue

A. Xuttall's Mariposa Lily, Calochortiis iSuttallii

B. Gunnison's Mariposa Lily. Calochurtus Gunnisoni

PLATE VIII

YKLLOW C'LINTONIA

C/iiiloiiia borcalis

Bear-Grass, Y. glauca, is smaller and much shorter.

These plants both grow on the dry Western prairies.

Adam's Needle, Y. filamenlosa, has lanceolate, flat leaves. It is cultivated, and has escaped in places. It grows wild in Florida, Louisiana, and Tennessee.

LILIES-OF-THE- VALLEY

THE Lily-of-the- Valley Family grows from root- stocks, never from bulbs or corms. The leaves are simple, parallel-veined and broad, except in the Asparagus and its allies, where they are reduced to short, thread-like scales with tiny branchlets in the axils. The flowers grow in racemes, umbels, panicles or are soHtary ; they are regular and perfect. The perianth is either divided into four to six segments, or is in one piece, with six lobes or teeth. The stamens grow from the perianth. The pistil has a two to three-celled ovary, and a style with a generally three-lobed stigma. Tlae fruit is a fleshy berry with few or numerous seeds.

Several members of this group so much resemble the Lily Family Proper, that at first sight it is difficult to distinguish them.

plate VIII

Yellow Clintonia, Clmtonia borealis. Root. A slender rootstock. Stem. A simple scape, 6'-i5' high. Leaves. Large, 2-5, oval, smooth. Flowers. Lily- like, 3-6 in an umbel, drooping, greenisli yellow. Peri- anth.— Of six recurved segments. Stamens [a). Six. Pistil {b). With a two-celled ovary. Fruit. A bright- blue berry.

The pale-yellow bells and bright leaves of the Clintonia decorate many moist woodlands, from Newfoundland south to North Carolina and west to Minnesota, during May and June. Sometimes a flower is borne on the scape, below the umbel.

White Clintonia, C. umbcllulala, is rather tafler

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Bkar-Grass, Y. glav

These plants bo!!

Adam's Nkedlj . leaves. It is cultivalcti, a;iu ha..- cii:dpi.t grows wild in Florida, Louisiana, and T'

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LILIES-OF-THE-VALLEY

rnpi!

s from roDl-

is in the axils, i in

1 nicies or are solitary ;

liccL. The perianth is either

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t,;.. iuLti or icclh. 'i\ the perianth.

The pistil has a ' ry, and a style

with a generally th ..:,,. -i ii-nia. The fruit is a

fleshy berry with few or numerous seeds.

Several members of this group so much resemble the Lily Family Proper, that at first sight it is difficult to distinguish thpm

Yellow ( horca/is. Root. .

slender rootstu, ,. : 1/ scape, 6'-i~,' high.

Leaves. Large, 'i- Flowers.— Lily-

like, 3-6 in an un -,■ iv'rl'.,-.. Peri-

anth.— Oi six rc' Pistil (6).— With :: blue berry.

The pale-yellow bells and bright leaves of tht

nv moist woodlands, from NewfoiJili . li Carolina and west to Minnesota, durini:^ . .' Sometimes a flower is borne on the scape, ibel. \vi! 1 1 V LiNTONjtA, C. umbellulala, is rat^^-'- '''l'-'-

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PLATE VIII. Reduced abont H (roo Life Size Yellow CliotoDia, Clintonia borealis

and woolly, with smaller, white, purple-dotted, erect, odorous flowers, a small leaf on the scape, and black, round berries. It ranges from New York to Georgia in May and June.

Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis, is a native of Europe, escaped from cultivation in various parts of the country. The young shoots make the delicious vegetable, which we all know. The small, thread-like leaves of the plant do not look like the lily tribe, but the bell-like, drooping, greenish flowers, with their six small segments, point the way. The fruit is a scarlet berry. The plant blooms in early summer and again in autumn.

PLATE IX, A

False Solomon's Seal, Wild Spikenard, Vagnera racemosa {Smilacina raccmosa). Root. A thick, scarred rootstock. Stem. Curved, simple, i°-3° high. Leaves. Oval, sessile, alternate, finely woolly. Flowers (a). In a densely flowered, terminal panicle, small, creamy- white. Perianth. Of six oblong segments. Stamens (6).— Six. Pistil (<-).— White. Fruit.— A red berry speckled with purple.

These feathery tassels of creamy flowers grow pro- fusely, from May to July in rich woods or thickets, across the continent.

V. amplexicaulis is similar, with clasping leaves and a longer style. It grows westward.

PLATE IX, B

Star-Flowered Solomon's Seal, V. stellata. Root. A stout, fleshy rootstock. Stem. Stout, erect, 8'-2o' high. Leaves. Veiny, sessile, somewhat clasping, oblong-lanceolate. Flowers (d). In a few-flowered, terminal raceme, star-shaped, larger than V. racemosa, white. Perianth. Of six oblong segments. Sta- mens fc).— Six. Pistil (/).— White. Fruit.— A black or green Ijcrry with six black stripes.

This plant is stouter and less graceful than its sister, V. racemosa, but its star-like flowers are more attractive.

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Mild woolly, with smaller, white, purple-dotted, erect, odorous flowers, a small leaf on the scape, and black, round berrieS; It- ranges from New York to Georgia in \r.i\ md June.

. RAGUS, Asparagus ofjicinalis, is a native of Europe,

from cultivation in various parts of the country. The young shoots make the delicious vegetable, which we all know. The small, thread-like leaves of the plant do not look like the lily tribe, but the bell-like, drooping, •rjTenish flowers, with their six small segments, point the The fruit i^ ' ' " ' ■' plant blooms

summer i-.

False Solomon's Seal, Wild Spikenard, Vagnera racemosa {Smilqcina raaniioyd) . Root. -A thick, M-nrri-^l rootstock. Stem. Cur-' Oval, sessile, nlirTrd^ In a densel)'

white. Peri: Stamens

(b).- ^■'w. Pistu !.• ;. - \\ mu-. iruii. .a red berry -■].>■. I Vlid with purple.

1 iitse feathery tassels of creamy flowers grow pro- fusely, from May to July in rich woods or thickets, across the continent.

V. amplex'icauHs is similar, with clasping leaves and a longcT ^l\le. It grows w^'.-^'wiurd.

Star-Flowered Solomon's Seal, V. stellata. Root.

A stout, fleshy ii

high. Leaves. -

oblong-lanceolate. riuvvrrt? ./ - . : ■. .

terminal raceme, star-shaped, larger than V.

white. Perianth. Of six oblong .segmeii: .

mens (e).— Six. Pistil (/).— White. Fruit.— A black r

(^reen berry with six black stripes.

This j)lant is stouter and less graceful than its sister, V. racemosa, but its star-like flowers are more attractive.

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"I.ATK IX. Radaced about ^ from LHe Slie

v. False Solomoo's SeaJ, Vagnera ractmota B. SUr-flowered Solomon's Seal, Vagntra stellata

PLATE X

Solomon's seal Po/yi^oiialiim hijJonim

It has much the same range as the other, Ijut it blooms in moist soil.

Unifolium lUiacetim may be a distinct species. It is similar and has conspicuousl}' folded leaves, and ranges west from the Black Hills.

Three-Leaved Solomon's Seal, Vagnera iri^oUa, is smooth, small and slender, with 2-4 leaves and a few- flowered raceme of larger white flowers. It ranges from Newfoundland, south to Pennsylvania and west to Michi- gan, in bogs and wet woods.

These plants all flower in May or June.

Solomon's Seal, Polygonalum biflorum. Root. A fleshy rootstock, with round scars from last year's growth. Stem. Simple, arched, 8'-3° high. Leaves. Oval, alternate, woolly beneath. Flowers. Drooping, in clusters of 1-4, from the axils of the leaves, yellowish or greenish-white. Perianth. In one bell-shaped piece, six-tootiied. Stamens [a). Six, growing on the peri- anth. Pistil (/)). With a head-like stigma. Fruit. A dark blue or black berry.

The rootstock gives the Solomon's Seal its cjuaint name; for the round scars, left from last season's growth, look somewhat like the imprint of a seal. This graceful plant is found in woods from New Brunswick to Florida and west to Michigan. It blooms in spring.

Smooth Solomon's Seal, P. commulatum {P. gigan- teum), is similar, but smooth and generally much larger, sometimes reaching in height. The clusters have generally more blossoms. It blooms somewhat later than the other, in moist woods, all over the country.

Clasping-Leaved Twisted-Stalk, Streptopus am- plexifolius, rather resembles the Solomon's Seals. It has a twisted branching stem and alternate, clasping, oval leaves. The flowers are bell-shaped, with separate seg- ments, greenish- white, and droop singly or in pairs, from the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a red berry. It blooms in moist woods, across the continent.

Sessile-Leaved Twisted-Stalk, 5. roseus, is much the same, save that the leaves are not clasping and the

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PLATE XI

INDIAN CUCIMBER ROOT

Medeola Virginiana

flowers arc pink. This plant ranges with its sister. They both bloom in early summer.

Hairy Disporum, Disporum laniiginosum, resembles the last. It is a finely hairy herb, with 1-3 terminal, greenish, erect flowers and an oval, red berry. It grows in the woods, through Ontario and the Eastern-coast States, and blooms in late spring.

Rough-Fruited Disporum, D. trachycarpum, is simi- lar, with roughish, leathery fruit and yellowish-white flowers. It blooms from May to August across Canada and west of the Mississippi.

False Lily-of-the- Valley, Unijolium Canadense {Maianthemum Canadense), is a smooth little plant with 1-3 oval, alternate, shining leaves and a terminal raceme of small, creamy- white flowers with four segments and four stamens. It has an odor rather hke the true Lily-of-the- Valley, but fainter. The berry is pale red and speckled. It blooms in late spring, from Newfoundland to North Carolina and west to South Dakota.

Convallaria majalis is the true Lily-of-the-Valley. It has the 2-4 oblong leaves from near the root and the scape of bell-shaped, six-lobed, white, fragrant flowers with which we are so familiar. It grows wild on high mountains in Virginia and the Carolinas and is com- mon in cultivation. It blooms in May and June.

plate XI

Indian Cucumber Root, Medcola Virginiana. Root. A short, fleshy rootstock. Stem. Simple, i°-2j° high. Leaves. Broadly lanceolate, in two whorls; the lower at the middle of the stem and the upper at the apex just beneath the flowers. Flowers. In a terminal, few- flowered umbel, on stalks which are bent for the flower and erect for the fruit. Perianth fa). Of six green- ish yellow oval segments. Stamens {b). Six, with orange anthers.