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AporiGiInaLs of Stradbroke and Moreton Islands, Notes on the. By George Watkins Acacia Cunninghamii Aigiceras majus Agrotis enunciatus American Oyster a oe oc a6 Antheeretis eridora Avaucaria Cunninghamii 45 Bidwillii . brasiliensis Asbestos. By E. Hall and H. G. Stokes Aspilates obliquata

Barry, F. M.— Notes on Plants collected on Blackall Range * tA r Diamantina Presidential Address (‘‘ A Concise History of Anstra: lian Botany”’) Bancroft, Dr. T. L.—

Distillation of Native Essential Oils from a Com-

mercial Aspect Echinococcus in a Wallaby 2 Preliminary Notes on Some New Paaannud Plants OC Psoriasis in Horses 55 Strychnine, a Useless Rammed in iBriakobive Sc Barrimundi, New Species. By W. Saville-Kent . Bernays, L. A.— Guinea Grass: Its History, Cultivation, and Value .. On the Chayote (Sechium ae Black Sickness oe He 5 Le Ae are Black Snake “¢ a6 se oie ac oie Bunya Bunya Se OC ne ae ae

CanariumM Muelleri, Oleo-resin of Chayote one Ne Ac a Ae AG Chocho Ae ae Ss Pee ae Ac He

VII

6

rar owe w Ww Or OS Sr or =

lV. INDEX.

Colonial Pine .. ate Sr ee Comarchis pallida

Danas cupreotincta Deilephila livornicoides Demodex folliculorum ™De Vis, C. W., On the Ribbon Fish Diphtheraspis modicus . Dog Mange : Drainage of Drayroads aa Railr ends

Harry Temperature in Mines. By Wm. Be Echinococcus in a Wallaby Embryology of the Anstralian Rock Ovaen

Epicrocis seminigra oc Sc ae ae

Essential Oils European Oyster Ac Eurthryparodes bracteolatis

Fryar, Wm.: Earth Temperature in Mines

GIGGLE-GIGGLE

Godara illustris ;

Graphina (Aulacographina) Emits

Guinea Grass: Its History, Cultivation and Value Gums of Eucalypts and Angophoras

Haumarturts dorsalis Herminia delicata : Homceosoma (?) albocontala, Hoop Pine

Horse Mange

Hypochroma quadeiliven Hypogramma distincta

Iopis quieta

Lavrererk, Dr. J.: Snake Poison v. Strychnine Leucania labeculis

Ps linearis Lichens from Warwick. By ili Bhisloy,

Lueas, Dr. T. P.: On 34 New Species of Anakeaeae

Lepidoptera

Macro-Leriporvers (Heterocera), New Species of Aus-

tralian. By W. H. Miskin Maiden, J. H.— Oleo-resin of Canarium Muelleri Resins of two Queensland Araucarias

95 1

INDEX.

Melanites Solandra Melicope erythrococca Sc Melittia chalybescens Miskin, W. H.— A Reyision of the Australian Sphingidw ; with index of genera and species Further Notes on Australian Sphingide New Species of Australian Macro-Lepidoptera Monoctenia punctunculus i Turneri Moreton Bay Pine

Native Grape Vines of America and Australia (Shirley) ..

Nausinoe marmorata se

New Lichens. By Rey. F. R. M. Wilbon

New Plants from Eumundi. By F. M. Bailey

Norfolk Island Pine :

Norton, Hon. A.: Presidential Adios fatty, 1892)

Notarcha adipactis

Notes on Plants collected iy De, T. L. Banetott> on the Diamantina. By F. M. Bailey

Notodonta cinerea a

OsR-FISH ; Officers for 1292- 93 Oils, Essential. By Dr. T. L. Paneratt Oleo-resin of Canarium Muelleri. By J. H. Maiden Omiodes bianoralis Onychodes multicolora Osteoglossum Jardinii, a new Beraninah ieaville: Kent) Ostrea angulata » edulis : Si ar ae a as , glomerata, Notes on the Embryology of. (with Plate). By W. Sayille-Kent », virgineana Oyster, Portuguese rie ot ane we » Rock (Ostrea Flenceeniay. Embryology of. By W. Saville-Kent.

Panicum maximum: Its History, Cultivation, and Value. By L. A. Bernays

Parmelia laceratula var. minor

Patellaria (Bacidia) multiseptata

Pericampylus incana ..

Phylloxera vastatrix ... AC

Pipinella

Portuguese Oyster

v1. INDEX.

Porthesia fulviceps Porthesia (?) irrorata.. Presidential Addresses— A. Norton, July, 1892 F. M. Bailey W. Saville-Kent (ilesteated by ao plates) J. Shirley, July, 1893: ‘A Review of the Recent Botanical Work in Australia.” Pseudechis porphyriachus : Psoriasis in Horses, known in eesti a as Mare: By Dr. T. L. Bancroft Pyrausta epitrota

Ramroaps and Drayroads, Drainage of. By G. Phillips.. \. Regalecus Masterii oP x - ae ; Report of Council, 1892-3 ae Report of Delegates to Hobart Meeting of the Anstralnata Association for the Advancement of Science, January, 1892. By J. Shirley. * Ribbon Fish, a New Species of. By C. W. De Vis Resins of two Queensland Species of Araucaria, Notes on

SancopeTaLuM Harveyanum .. Saville-Kent, W.— Notes on the Embryology of the Australian Rock Oyster Description of New Species of Barrimundi Presidential Address aaa by two plates) Sea Serpent : Sechium edule. By L. = mean Shirley, J.: Lichens from Warwick and ieichbont anni Native Grape Vines of America and Australia Presidential Address, July, 1893 Report of Delegates to Hobart Meeting of ks rs A. S., January, 1892. Sieulodes hemicycla .. : sie os sts Snake Poison v. Strychnine. By Dr. J. Lauterer Sphingide (Australian). By W. H. Miskin his Notes on. By W. H. Miskin Sticta, New Species ae Strophanthus .. Strychnine, a Useless lesietiyt in Brake Bite Strychnos toxifera

Tyara farenoides ye PULA) fects Terastia subjectalis

Vol. VIII

Page. 76 77

VIII (Pt. 4) x VIII (Pt. 2) xvi VII (Pt. 2) 17

1X

12

VIII 29, 33

VII Vill

VII

VU VII (Pt. 2) VIII vil VUI 1X VIII

65

INDEX.

Terias casta 55 5c 5c sc xe

Temperature of the Earth in Mines. By W. Fryar

Temperature of the Australian Colonies for the year 1890. By Mrs. C. Coxen.

Thalpochares dividens or. -

Theloschistes chrysophthalmus var. alatus

Thermesia tenebrica ..

Trichoptilus (2) inclitus

Trochilium Cupreifascia

Vipera berus -) ) redit

Warxtys, G.: On Aboriginals of Stradbroke and Moreton Islands.

White Dammar

White Sickness ies acs “5

Wilson, Rev. F. R. M., New Lichen

XANTHORRH.EA arborea Xenica paludosa Xenosuma rubra

ZErHES chordophoides 5, conscripta Zeuzera tripartita

Vol.

Vill VII Vil

PR O@n rE DINGS

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IEU@) IOP ANP AD) AA) ARSiSKSe

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Geom Tl EN aS:

PART 1.

PaPERS. PaGE- ** Notes on the Resins of two Queensland species of Araucaria” eve Call By J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.S., F.CS., &e.

‘* Distillation of Native Essential Oils from a Commercial Aspect” .. 6

By THOS. L. BANCROFT, M.B.

‘¢ Notes on a Remarkable Lichen Growth in connection with a new species of Sticta ; with descriptions of both” Bc ae Bn) tn)

By Rey. E.R: M. WiOSON. ‘* Remarks on the Temperature of the Earth, as exhibited in Mines,

with special reference to observations in some of the deepest mines on the Gympie Gold Field” .. Ss of se 55. 14

By W. FRYAR, INspecron or MINEs.

‘On Echinococcus in a Wallaby Es B ae we Rey

By THOS. L. BANCROFT, M.B.

‘Notes on the Embryology of the Australian Rock Oyster (Ostrea glomerata) St : er a0 ae Se tc a6 33

By W. SAVILLE-KENT, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &e.

** Sechium Edule (Chayote). Its introduction into Queensland—Cullti- vation and Uses”’ Se oe a a Ev Pe sie All

By LEWIS A, BERNAYS, P. PREs.

Correction—*‘ Six new species of Rhopalocera ”’ 5% 56 eats By THOS. P. LUCAS, M.R.C.S., Ene., L.S.A., Lonp., L.R.C.P., Ep., &c.

PART I[t.

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, including President’s Address - (with plates) and Register of Members for 185')-90.

NOTES ON THE RESINS OF TWO QUEENSLAND SPECIES OF ARAUCARIA.

By Vv. Hs MAIDEN, F:L.S., F.C.Sa ee

(Curator of the Technological Museum, Sydney ).

[Read before the Royal Society of Queensland, August 16th, 1889) .

ARAUCARIA CUNNINGHAMII (Ait.) B. FI. vi., 243.

N. O. Conifere. Found in Queensland and northern New South Wales. ‘* Moreton Bay Pine,” ‘‘ Hoop Pine,” ‘‘ Colonial Pine.”

Araucarias produce a resin when wounded which, in some physical characteristics, is similar to that produced by Pinus and allied genera.

‘*The resin which exudes from this tree is very remarkable, as it is transparent and nearly colourless, and that portion of it which adheres to the trees, hangs from them in pendants which are sometimes three feet long and six to twelve inches broad.’ (Hill). This species, in fact, appears to yield it most abundantly of all the genus, the resin flowing from every slight wound of the stem. The Norfolk Island pine (A. excels), also yields resin on wounding, but not so abundantly.

The sample before me is very like gum thus, or common frankincense, the produce of various species of Pinus, except that it is paler in colour. It is of the cclour and lustre of pale amber. The pieces externally are quite hard and very brittle,

but internally they are still in a viscid condition, and possess A

2 NOTES ON THE RESINS, ETC., OF ARAUCARIA.

the pleasing odour of canada balsam, with perhaps a dash of ereasote thrown in. In the mouth it has a slight aromatic flavour, readily softens, first feels sticky lke dough, and then like paraffin. Cold water simply whitens the resm. Hot water seems scarcely to effect any change in it, although the liquid becomes slightly cloudy. In rectified spirit the greater part quickly dissolves, forming a pale yellow or almost colourless liquid. The. residue is white and granular. Petroleum spirit extracts 52°7 per cent., consisting of a yellowish resin, a little volatile oil (turpentine), and a little wax. The residue was then treated with alcohol, which extracted 27°3 per cent. of a yellowish resin. The residue was then acted upon with water, which extracted 15:6 per cent. (arabin, 10°3 %, saline matters, 5°3.%). The remainder consisted of metarabic acid (1 9%), and accidental impurity (3°2 %).

SumMary. Soluble in petroleum spirit “a 5a) Ber 7/ y ,, alcohol .. ie ve aa oibe een (are Din. is se HOS anf pareaye be? salts: ... ee eso: Metarabic acid 56 be oP Be ey) Accidental impurity. . x 5 2. one

99°83

As showing that this resin is somewhat variable in composition, a further sample was digested in, alcohol direct, which dissolved 80°5 per cent. ‘The residue consisted of white opaque particles, which were digested in water, which dissolved 9°7 per cent. (proved to be arabin, 8°3 per cent., and salts, 1-4 per cent.) ; while the remainder (9:8 per cent.) was soluble in petroleum spirit, with the exception of a little accidental impurity and metarabic acid, and proved to be a white waxy substance, which was not further examined.

SuMMARY.

tesin soluble in alcohol bu fe -. 80°5 Waxy substance soluble in petroleum spirit 9-0 Metarabic acid 3 ¥ ve ~- (OS

( avabin .. oe 22 HIS

Soluble in water Rosia ce ne

100-0

BY J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.S., F.C.S., ETC. 3

The percentage of arabin is exceedingly high—sufficient, perhaps, to constitute this a geum-resin; but as I was not aware of a gum-resin being recorded tor the conifer, I digested a fresh sample of the resin in cold water, with the result that I obtained 10°5 per cent. of arabin, a residue of a creamy white colour being left.

The only previous instance I can find of arabin being found im a coniferous resin, is by Dulk (Morel, Pharin. Jown. [8] ix., 714), who finds 0-1 per cent. im White Dammar. (Dammara orientalis, Lamb.)

A. Cunninghamii resin melts at 97-2 degrees C. It contains sugar, but neither this substance nor the ash was determined.

ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI (Hook.) B. FI. vi., 243.

Bunya-Bunya of the aboriginals. Found in Qveensland. Tus specimen is as different from that produced by 4. Cunninghanit as possible. It is not easily described. It is rather brighter in colour than low-grade resin of Yunthorrhea arborea ; otherwise, they are very similar in appearance. Except in redness of colour it is much like some samples of inferior gum benzoic I have seen. It has a creasote-like odour.

* This particular resin and that of Y. arborea are so much alike that the non-critical observer would scarcely fail to confound them. ‘The following points serve to distinguish them :—

1. The comparatively high solubility of the Araucaria in petroleum spirit.

2. The large amount of accidental impurity in the Araucaria.

3. Examination of the residue left after treatment of the resins, tirst with petroleum spirit and then with alcohol. The dAraucaria residue contains numbers of little scales, which are from the male amenta. The NXanthorrhwa. residue contains fragments of the bases of its own leaves.

4, The absence of benzoic acid in Araucaria.

4 NOTES ON THE RESINS, ETC., OF ARAUCARIA.

Its prevailing colour is purple-brown ; and lustre, dull resinous. When powdered it is of a bright red, something between Venetian and Indian red, forming a very pleasing colour. It is amyegdaloidal, the amygdaloids being small, and consisting of the scales referred to in the foot-note. It is quite brittle, powdering readily. It stains the fingers, and is gritty to the teeth, like brick-dust, and colours the saliva red. It is similar to some poor sample of dragon’s blood, except in the amygdaloid appearance.

This specimen is evidently an abnormal one, and therefore I have some doubts as to what value an analysis of it may be. According to the Paris Exh. Cat., 1878, resin of this species is ‘clear and transparent,” and probably it and the resin of A. Cunninghamii, collected under similar circumstances, are very much alike. My resin is very impure, and it may be that long exposure to rain and sun may have darkened the colour. I received this specimen from the Director of the Botanic Garden, Sydney, and there is no doubt as to its origin, apart from the evidence furnished by examination of its insoluble residue.

On digestion in pretroleum spirit for a few days there is removed 9°3 per cent. of a transparent substance, which would be taken for a resin but for the fact that scratching with a hard substance reduces it to a bright-looking flaky powder, and that alcohol, added to it, produces a white opaque powder which appears to possess more of the characteristics of a resin. It is insoluble both in aqueous and alcoholic potash. At present I am uncertain as to the precise nature of this substance.

Addition of alcohol to the residue from petroleum spirit dissolves 61:3 per cent. of a resin of superb ruby colour. This is a most handsome resin, and should be further enquired into, both from a scientific point of view, and also to investigate its usefulness for tinctorial or other economic purposes.

The residue was then acted upon by water, with the result that 3°8 per cent. of a yellow substance, consisting of colouring matter (?) and salts, was extracted. It contains no arabin.

~

BY J. H. MAIDEN, F.L.S., F.C.S., ETC. a

The residue (26:0 per cent.) is of a chocolate colour, consists of woody fibre and other vegetable débris, such as cone- scales, &c., and does not contain any gummy matter.

SuMMAkyY. Soluble in petroleum spirit (? resin acid)... 9°3 Resin soluble in alcohol (rect. spirit) .. 61:3 Soluble in water... Sc 50 as OS Accidental impurity. . me ae -- 26:0

100-4 A second sample was treated with alcohol direct, which extracted 72°9 per cent. of a bright coloured resin in no way differimg (apparently) from that already described as having been extracted by alcohol.

The residue was then acted upon by petroleum spirit, which extracted 5°3 per cent. of the resinoid substance above referred to. It contained 22°6 per cent. of accidental impurity.

SUMMARY. Soluble in aleohol direct .. 5 crt Eg "5 ,, petroleum spirit eke net ene Accidental impurity, &c. .. Sc ae 22:0 100-8

(The effect of water was not ascertained).

Cold water has apparently no effect on the resin. On boiling with water for some time it partly melts and clings to the sides of the beaker, the remainder breaks down and settles at the bottom. The liquor becomes turbid, of a yellowish- brown colour, and possesses a very slight odour.

For the chemistry of the resin of Araucaria brasiliensis (A. Rich.), and products therefrom, see Peckholt, NV. Br. Arch, exxil., 225; Gmelin, xvii., 19; Watts’ Dict., VI., 190.

DISTILLATION OF NATIVE ESSENTIAL OILS: FROM A COMMERCIAL ASPECT,

By THOS. L. BANCROFT, M.B.

. [Read before the Royal Society of Queensland, August 16th, 1889].

I rumx the following information is worth recording, as showing most certainly that the distiHation of essential oils in Queensland could not be profitably undertaken.

I was led to investigate this subject by the encouraging accounts upon native essential oils given in the writings of Baron von Mueller, Messrs. Staiger, Schimmel & Co., and F. M. Bailey, all of whom would encourage the commercial distillation of these oils. It was, of course, apparent to anyone that some excellent oils could be prepared from a few native plants, and in quantity from several. This had been proved by Messrs. Gregory, Staiger, and others. The Hon. A. C. Gregory has been enabled, through the Government, to procure quantities of the leaves of many oil-bearing plants, regardless of expense, which in most cases was enormous. The leaves of five plants, the oils of which were highly spoken of—namely, Hucalyptus Staigeriana, E. dealbata, FE. Baileyana, E. cttriodora, and Backhousia citriodora—could not be procured in Brisbane for a sum less than the value of the oil contained.

For instance, Hucalyptus Staiyeriana leaves from Maytown cost £30 a ton, and those of Kucalyptus Baileyana from Cooper’s Plains, £10.

To pay the manufacturer he would have to make his oils to sell wholesale at 1s. 8d. to 1s. 6d. per lb. in Brisbane, or at the very outside 2s. 6d. in London.

DISTILLATION OF NATIVE ESSENTIAL OILS, ETC. t

Now, in a ton of leaves there is at the utmost but 20 lbs. of oil, which say is worth 30s. It would therefore be necessary to gather a ton of leaves, cart them to the still, distil and bottle the oil, pack and place f.o.b. for 80s., and this cannot be done at the present rate of wages.

I found that a man could gather from 8 to 5 ewt. of branches of leaves in a day. To save time the leaves are pressed into sacks, the mouths of which are then sewn up to facilitate carriage. A well filled sack weighs generally 45 lbs., but occasionally one will weigh as much as 56 lbs.—this depends upon the, juiciness of the leaf. It is best to throw the filled sacks into the still stead of emptying out the leaves, as this is a most tedious thing to do; moreover, after being steamed, the sacks can be more readily handled than loose leaves.

The still I used was made of galvanised iron of the capacity of 1,000 gallons of water or half a ton of green leaves. _ Taking the maximum amount a man can gather daily at 5 ewt.. yielding 5 lbs. of oil at 1s. 6d., equal to 7s. 6d.; against this you have 5s. wages, 5s. cartage, 2s. 6d. distilling, and 1s. other expenses, equal to 18s. 6d.

I found that only three plants growing about Brisbane— namely, Fucalyptus hemastoma, Malaleuca linariifolia, and M. leucadendron gave anything lke 20 lbs. of oil to theton. I was unable to get the exact yield as the head of the still was not absolutely steam-tight.

The only commercial use that has been suggested for these oils is as perfume for soaps, and for this purpose they must compete in price with such oil as verbena grass.

The oil of Eucalyptus globulus is now obtained as a by product, and I am told can be sold in California to leave a profit, at less than 1s. per lb. I sent !samples of these oils to Messrs. Cleaver and Co., large soap manufacturers in England. They tried them in the proportion of 1 1b. of oil to the cewt. of soap; the soap was perfectly scented after being made, but in two or three weeks it was impossible to say that any oil had been used. They say that for scenting soaps these oils are useless.

NOTES ON A REMARKABLE LICHEN GROWTH IN CONNECTION WITH A NEW SPECIES OF STICTA; WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF BOTH.

By Rev. F. R. M. WILSON, Kew, Victoria.

[Read before the Royal Society of Queensland, August 16th, 1889) .

In April, 1886, I found in a fern-tree gully, on Mount Macedon, Victoria, a Sticta, which I sent to Dr. Charles Knight, of New Zealand, and which he pronounced a new species. He named it Sticta stipitata.

In the same gully, and at the same time, I found a few specimens of a remarkable’ plant, somewhat lke a minute lead- coloured ostrich feather. Microscopical examination revealed, under the upper cortex, a stratum of gominic granules; which put it beyond doubt that the plant was a lichen. But to what tribe of lichen it belonged I could not decide.

a

Among the specimens collected were found one or two which were tipped by a minute broad green frond, haying in its under surface white urceolate eyphelle, and containing true yellowish-green gonidia. In fact, it seemed to be a minute Sticta, with some resemblance to the plant Sticta stipitata. But the presence of a Sticta or anything like a Sticta on the apex of so diverse a plant was a puzzle which I put aside till I should get more materials for examination.

In February, 1887, I found in another fern-tree gully on the same mountain a few more specimens of these lead-coloured plumules, and among them some which were tipped by larger fronds, bearing a still closer resemblance to a Sticta and to the species stipitata. The idea then grew stronger that this strange plume-like plant might be the juvenile form of Sticta stipitata.

NOTES ON A REMARKABLE LICHEN GROWTH, ETC. 9

It reminded me somewhat of the difference between the first and subsequent leaves (phyllodes) of certain acacias. I have been informed also that ferns in their infantile state simulate the liver-worts. But I knew of no parallel case among lichens. Still I could not account for the phenomena observed on any other hypothesis.

In November, 1887, being again on Mount Macedon, I explored the gullies for further specimens, and any doubts I had were set at rest by finding on a fallen and decaying tree numerous specimens of Sticta stipitata in all states of trans- formation :—Simple lead-coloured plumules, plumules tipped with small fronds, plumules with fronds as large as them- selves, still larger fronds with remains of the plumules at their base, fronds without the plumules, but with their tomentose stipes more o1 less enlarged, and, lastly, fully developed and fruited plants with much thickened but well marked tomentose stipes.

In June, 1889, being on Mount Macedon, I resolved to examine the matter from a different point of view: I searched for juvenile forms of Sticta stipitata, and I found that in every case the very early stage of the plant was plumose.

I conelude that the plumule is a juvenile state of Sticta stipituta. 1 acknowledge that I have not found, either from my own observation or from reading or from correspondence, any case like this. The only analogies I can think of among lichens are the cephaulodia which are found upon some lichens, and the Aypothallus upon which many lichens grow.

Of the cephalodia which are found on some species of Stictel, Nylander says: ‘‘ Cephalodia in thallo interdum observantur peculiaria (systemate gominico e granulis gominis formato), aut (1) sparsa glomerulos leptogiodeos referentia, aut (2) semel (in Sticta dichotomoide) maryinialia simpliciora, aut demum (3) in pagina infera sit a faciei pyrenodew”’ (Syn., p. 833). The plumules in question have their gonimic system formed, like these cephalodia, of granula gonima, although the adult plants have true gonidia. But there is this important

10 NOTES ON A REMARKABLE LICHEN GROWTH, ETC.

difference, that cephalodia are growths upon and out of the adult plant, while in the case of the plumules the more mature plant grows upon and out of them.

In this latter respect they seem to serve much the same purpose as the hypothallus of some plants. I refer again to Nylander: ‘* La couche hypothalline est la plus inférieure du thalle, celle sur laquelle se stratifient les autres, mais ille n’est pas toujours visible et manque dans beaucoup d’espéces. Elle precede dans la genése des lichens la formation des autres couches thallines, mais son développement s’arréte souvent de bonne heure, et elle est alors peu distincte ou disparait enticrement. Son tissu est filamenteux ou cellulare, et sa couleur est le plus souvent foncée ou noiratre, d’autres fois pale, mais rarement blanche,” (Syn., p. 11). The plumule is probably a homologue of the hypothallus; but, while the tissue of the hypothallus is either filamentose or cellular, the plumule has also a gominic stratum and a cellular cortex besides.

In short, this is a new form of lichen growth, so far as my observation or reading serves me. If any lichenologist has ob- served any growth of the same or analogous nature, I should be glad to compare notes and exchange specimens, in order that the matter may be thoroughly investigated.

Descriptions OF STICTA STIPITATA AND ITS JUVENILE Form.

Sticta stipitata, C.K., spec. noy. Thallus glauceous pallid (when moist a bright green), here and there rufescent, moderate in size (2-3 inches high, and attaining sometimes 4 inches in breadth), thin, somewhat rigid, scarcely shining, obsoletely scrobiculate laciniato—lobate, lacinexe sub-pinnatifid, margins sinuate and undulate, sinuses largish and round, apices often broadly dilated and crenate, sometimes, deeply divided or even laciniatule; under surface pale fulvous, tomentose, tomentum short, sordid, denser towards the base, which often ends ina stout woody tomentose stipe, cyphelle thelotremoid.

BY REV. F. R. M. WILSON, KEW, VICTORIA. i131

Apothecia fusco-rufous small (1-35 m. m. broad) scattered, margins thalline, entire, often at length obliterated. Spores colourless, fusiform, 5 septate, 035 x O07 m. m.

Habitat on trunks of trees and fern trees and on logs, in thickets on Mount Macedon, Victoria. It has not yet been dis- covered elsewhere. The plants generally grow closely crowded together and imbricated, often covering many feet of tree or log with subascending fronds.

Allied to Sticta variabilis, the juvenile state of this lichen is fruticulose ramose, the branches spreading out in one plane secundo-incurved, the stem and lower side of the branches terete fulvous, tomentose, the upper side plane, smooth, plumbeous, the higher branches slightly dilated, the last divisions extremely minute. Its height is about one inch, and the diameter of the stem about one millimeter. The plumbeous colour is owing to the presence of numerous bluish-green granula gomina disposed in a moniliform manner immediately under the upper cortex.

REMARKS ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH AS EXHIBITED IN MINES,

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OBSERVATIONS IN SOME OF THE DEEPEST MINES ON THE GYMPIE GOLD FIELD.

By WILLIAM FRYAR, Inspector of Mines, Queensland.

[Read before the Royal Society of Queensland, March 21st, 1889).

THE present and prospective importance of the mining industry of the colony is my excuse for troubling you with remarks which have an important bearing on its prosperity and permanency, and although the absolutely new data which can now be presented is only very meagre, the facts and deductions therefrom may be stated in order that attention may be drawn to the subject.

The question of subterranean temperature has been touched on by a few scientific gentlemen, but has scarcely had that attention at the hands of persons actually and daily engaged in underground operations which it deserves. It has, however, been attempted to be shewn on various occasions that the natural heat of the earth increases as descent is made into the strata or rocks constituting its crust; and that this merement of temperature is at the rate of 1deg. Fahrenheit to from 40 to 60 feet of descent, and that therefore the limit at which men can work is quite within measurable distance, as indeed it would be in our tropical mining fields if this theory held good, for with a mean annual temperature of 67 degs. at Brisbane, and probably 10 degs. more on our Northern gold fields, a very short depth below that to which we have now attained would reach an atmosphere intolerable to be borne by human beings as at ‘present constituted.

REMARKS ON TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH IN MINES. 13.

In the observations which have been made on this matter, the British mining engineer or manager takes a prominent place, although he is not alone in drawing attention to it. Inform- ation on such subjects is, however, generally made available to the English reader in whatever language it may have been originally written.

In the history of the coal trade by Matthias Dunn, pub- lished in 1844, it it stated that ‘‘the temperature of coal mines is now pretty well known to be in proportion to their depth. A single instance from my minutes of January, 1820, will shew the effect in different situations of Jarrow Colliery: Temperature at surface, 46 degs.; temperature at bottom of shaft, 146 fathoms deep, 61 degs.”” The other observations do not affect the present question ; the mean ratio here is nearly 10 fathoms of depth to 1 deg. of temperature. The observation is made at the surface, however, in winter; whereas in summer the surface tempera- ture would have been higher than that taken at the bottom of the shaft without the temperature at that point being materially altered, as the air would have become of the normal temperature of the strata through which it had passed. This observation therefore proves nothing, but it illustrates the principle which appears to affect all the observations which have been taken, which is, that whilst in nearly all cases there is an increment of heat in a lower over that of a higher level, that imcrement is almost, if not altogether, due to local and exceptional circum- stances, and not to any general principle of internal heat, uni- formly or otherwise affecting the crust of the earth in proportion to the depth from the surface or from any other point, whether a plane of invariable temperature, the surface of the ocean or the

neighbouring plain of earth. e

Mr. W. J. Hemwood, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c., &e., gives the result of forty-five observations in the principal mining districts of Cornwall and Devon. Mean depths, 112 fathoms; mean temperature, 66°88; ratios, 6°8 fathoms, or about 40 feet descent for each degree of temperature. Now the mean between this and the ratio of increment given by Dunn, which is also given by Wardle in his ‘“‘ Reference Book on Practical Coal Mining,” will give 50 feet for each degree; and Hopton in

14 REMARKS ON TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH IN MINES.

his ‘*‘ Conversations on Mines,” gives 50 feet to 1 degree in the first 100 fathoms, 70 feet in the second, and 85 feet in the third. This diminishing ratio of increment certainly not strengthening the internal heat theory.

But if a similar increase of temperature takes place in our mines, even with a decreasing ratio of mcrement, we will have at the depth of 3,000 feet a permanent addition of 40 degs. to the normal heat at: the plane of invariable temperature, or the annual mean average temperature at the surface; which, taken at “68 degs., will give 108 degs. as the coolest possible state of the mine at that depth. But there are many additional sources of heat—adventitious or extraneous to the natural source—such as the pressure and friction brought about by the partial working away of the natural supports of the superincumbent rocks producing chemical decomposition, particularly in coal mines where the strata are much more pliable than those of other more crystalline formations, and these therefore subject the stratum of coal, where partial excavation has taken place, to severe pressure. There is also the heat produced by the men, the horses, the lamps or candles; and the heat generated by the decomposition of pyrites and other refuse of the mine. So that, according to this theory, it will be quite impossible to work our mines to anything approaching the depths. mentioned.

There are, however, examples both of coal and metalliferous mines being worked on the continent of Europe to much greater depths than that mentioned, but they have the advantage of a lower average annual mean temperature than we have here.

I have taken the examples above as representing the two great divisions of the mining industry. But even in these there are circumstances other than the internal heat theory which account for the increase of temperature. In the coal mines it may be due to the various extraneous sources mentioned above, and which, although lkely to be somewhat of a general

* Gympie is more than a degree north of Brisbane. Hence, 1 degree higher temperature is assumed for it; and all our other mining fields are ain warmer latitudes.

BY WM. FRYAR, INSPECTOR OF MINES, QUEENSLAND. 15

character, so far as coal mining is concerned, do not to any great extent affect our more important division of that industry. In the other case it is extremely probable that effective ventilation would have had a very beneficial influence in modifying, if not entirely obviating, the great increase above the normal temperature, as the district in question had not acquired much reputation for progress in that direction’at the time at which the ‘‘observations”’ were taken. The observations I have been privileged to take at Gympie, with my remarks thereon, will show that there is reason to believe that the above theory does not apply on that field at any rate. And they afiord evidence that so far as our present depths are concerned—that is, at or under 1,500 feet—there need be no material increment of temperature above that of the normal temperature of the invariable plane, and which would at the worst be much lower than the temperature at the surface in summer.

The observations taken at Gympie have not been taken in holes drilled into the rock, nor in the water issuing from the rock, as has been customary when the information has been sought for philosophical reasoning rather than for practical purposes, but have been taken in the air of the mine where it has full play, and is such as men would ordinarily breathe at the depths mentioned. The temperature of the water issuing from the rocks must be a very uncertain means of estimating tne temperature of the mine for practical purposes, as the source of supply may be far distant and the depth of some portion of its course far below the level at which its temperature is taken; and when water in a tepid state issues it cannot at once raise the temperature of a mine to its own heat, but must itself proportionally lose a portion of heat.

The first set of observations at Gympie was taken on 14th and 15th December, 1888, when our semi-tropical heat is hearing its maximum. But the four hottest hours (11 to 3) were avoided, and the surface temperature taken in the shadiest place at the surface of the mine. The temperatnre had been high during the preceding week, 102 degs. to 106 degs. on the yerandahs of the houses near. The Inglewood mine is not connected with any other but 1s centred to the bottom—that is,

16 ~ REMARKS ON TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH IN MINES.

a wooden partition divides the shaft into two equal compart- ments three feet square each, and a very slight imperceptible amount of ventilation was produced. The shaft is 1,200 feet in depth. The temperature at the surface at 10h. 30m. a.m. was 90 degs., whilst that at the bottom was 78 degs. Thus showing an average decrease of temperature of 1 degree to each 100 feet. This being so diverse from the commonly received theory caused other observations to be made, which appear to indicate that that theory is not universally applicable ; and, on looking up other records, it is evident that local causes in most cases sufficiently account for the increment of temperature which has been observed.

At the Golden Crown shaft on same day (14th December), at 3h. 15m. p.m., the temperature in the shadiest of places at the surface was 96 degs.; at 240 feet down the shaft it was 78 degs.; at 420 it was also 78 degs.; at 1,090 it was 80 degs.; and at 1,200 also 80 degs. The 290 feet level communicates with another shaft, but none of the other places have any such communication ; the shaft is centred, men were at work at the bottom—i.e., at 1,200 feet, opening out, leaving a well-hole of 30 feet, no ventilating apparatus of any kind is in use, and therefore the bottom of the shaft would be hotter than its normal condition; yet it was 16 degs. below the temperature of the coolest place to be found at the surface where abundant shade is found, and only 2 degs. hotter than the 240 feet level nearly 1,000 feet above, where the advantage of through communication with another shaft was obtained.

On 15th December, at the Great Monkland, the weather had materially altered from that of the previous day, a little rain had fallen, and a slight mist hung in a cloudy atmosphere ; again the shadiest place was taken, and the hour was 8 a.m., temperature 80 degs. ; went direct to the 1400 feet opening and found it 76 degs., the shaft was centered, but no artificial means of producing a current was used; the centering was carried 5 feet below this opening. At 1450 feet, the depth to which the shaft had then reached, two men were at work; the centering was 45 feet above, and the place kept continually warm by three shifts, of two men each, working, whose chief duty is boring and

BY WM. FRYAR, INSPECTOR OF MINES, QUEENSLAND. 17

blasting, and the temperature was here found to be 79 degs., somewhat cooler than the coolest place on the surface at 8 o’clock in the morning of a dull day. At 650 feet in a recess in the shaft the temperature was 71 degs.; and at 240 feet, where communication is opened with another shaft, and to which a strong current of air was passing through, the temperature was 66 degs., that at the surface having risen by this time (10 a.m.) to 86 degs.; so that the effect of this 240 feet of rock on a good current of air passing was to cool it by at least 20 degs., but the difference between it and the exposed air at the surface would be from 40 degs. to 50 degs.

Observations were made on the same day at the No. 3 and 4 North Glanmire Company’s mine, which is not a deep mine. The temperature at the surface was 86 degs. at 11 a.m., that at 160 feet down, 75 dee., in a recess in the shaft, and at the

Die

bottom (339 feet), where communication is made with an ad- joining mine, it was also 75degs. No perceptible current of air was travelling.