VOL.2 NO. 1








FINALLY !! Just the programs we've all been waiting for! These quality professionally written programs will help you to learn machine code. Machine Code Tutor consists of 33 lessons on two cassettes (loaded in four parts). The instructions include actual examples and exercises to enable anyone with some knowledge of BASIC (it helps) to learn machine code. The system includes a simulated assembler that will help you spot errors without actually crashing the program. All registers in the 280 are fully covered for your TS2068. The manual that comes with Machine Code Tutor also is formated along the lines of the programs on the tapes, This program (originally for the Spectrum) has been converted to work on your 2068 without the use of a Spectrum ROM ! GRDER VEURS Nay | ONLY $18.50


QMNICALC2 is a spreadsheet analysis program designed to make full use of the TS2068. It gives you access to a grid of numbers which can be up to 99 columns across or 250 rows deep. All the math functions of the 2068 can be used, making it easy to build up sophisticated models for financial, engineering and many other applications. You can even set up conditional expressions, so that things such as tax, differential interest rates and variable overheads can be easily accomodated. $19.50

Please update your previous catalog (if you have une), or write tu us for «a free catalog (catalog sent with order from this listing automatically).

PAGE TITLE MEW COST | = PAGE TITLE WEu COST : = PAGE TITLE WE COST : = PAGE TITLE WEM COST 1 = PERSOWAL ACCT 17 6 JRAtY 10.95 10 «= WUESS ASSEMBLER = 17.5 18 sABOM 8.30 1 = PRO/FILE 2068 «= 18.50 6 AQUAPLANE 10.95 12 S8AbJ MICRODRIVE 144.50 18 AWDROIDS (CASS) 5.00 1 = FASWORD TI 18.30 6 THE SHOWHAN 10.95 13 FIGHTER PILOT 16.95 18 GUILPRAN WA 2 = SCREEN CALC N/A ? = CYBIRD-ASSAULT =: 8. 50 15 WORACE & SPIDERS = W/a 19 ROMSHT ICH 49.30 2 «W-30 W/A } sTINEATE 14.93 13. WORACE - SKIING = 3.00 19 3 GAMES DESIGNER = WA 3 NIGHT GUANER 16.95 7? =SMUGGLERS COVE =: 8.50 16 FLIGHT SIM. (CART) 14.95 19 FRED mia 3 FIGHTER PILOT) = 16.95 @ WAKE A FACE 16.00 16 BLING ALLEY 3.00 19 6 ANT ATTACK Ria 4 = QUETZALCOAIL 10.95 8 KINDERCOMP 16.00 16 =CABINO | N/A 20 WRAL 10.95 4 = =ALWED OUT 8.50 @ KI0S ON KEYS 16.00 16 = GENERALA W/A 20 VELNOR'S LAIR 10.95 3 TRADER TRILOGY §=10. 95 @ ALPHABET 100 16.00 17) PINBALL N/A 20 «30 STRATEGY 8.50 5 ROBBER 10.95 9 MULTI -DRaw 9.95 (7 HE CWESSPLAYER 8.50 20 = BUBABOD 10.95 5 LOST 10,95 10 TEAL DISASSAABLER 9,95 10 FROGGER W/A 21 LASERZOME 10.95 21 = GRIDRUNNER 10.95 24—soL1P COMPILER 16.50 23 «Wl or MUI (EA) «69.50

22) STARFIRE 10.95 24 PANASONIC 1090 199.00 25 2WD DRIVE (AbJ) «© 99.50

22s LADOM 8.50 24 = PAWASONIC 1091 283.00 25 BLANK CASSETTES (£A).75

23 WARWESS WCPER =—s-:10. 95 23 152068 COMPUTER 149.95 2 =WaRO BOIES (EA) 23 23° «GREYHOUND HCPR = 10.95 25 ALPHACON 32 PIR 46.95 23 TMMROUGNBRED WLP 10.95 23 «(AERCOC/P I/F 4.95

$ Denotes Spectrum prograns 3% Boes not include valer wheel ov waler caddy (storage devices).

ves-6 "sa 222 OR pat kee-areade-atyte Gast Ba008: =: sab eataimipantaasecadecentsbacnnakkeudesensdctecnnsnecwaeaaabencnia —DAERLa a APR RL oaLneabnenabennésnebent on a Second World War scenario. You afe the guiver WE WAVE ALSO ABBED TWESE MEW TITLES TO Ou PRORUCT LIME ''! ALL MAVE BEEM CONVERTED 10 Rum Ow THE 182068 ''! and bueb aieer whose task 15 to defend your plane against envay attach end destroy the ground targets in 30 different arssions. The rewards are high tor the expert @arksean, bul beware, the going gets tougher on each new aission. One of two player gaae,

with up to 4 levels of play. High speed yrephics. another tine progres true Digital Integration - the TRAVELS WITH TRAGWAAM (The sequel to the above) - - Your aission is te go forth into the vorid aad throw avay all the trash.

folks that brought you FIOHIEK PILOT. Quite a few places of interest can be visited, Germany, Wong Kong, France, Isreal, Spain, Samoa, aad of Comse America - lots Of action and good graphics - challenging and every bil as pend a6 TRAGMEAN, also, joystick controlled (er keyboard). $ 11.95



VISA/MASTERCARD Customers Please add 6% to order

TRASHAAN for the TS2066 This is an exciting (Joystich Control) gaae - a hit im England for the Spectrum. You play the part of a Trashaan just trying to aske a living by emptying the trash cans put out into the Garbage truck as it slowly soves dowa the Streets, you do have a tine ligit - but cam get extra time for doing the little extras that housewives have asked you - watch out when Crossing the streets - vatch out for those dogs when you walk on some folks mice lauas ' - Many Surprises '' $ 11.95



Volume 2, Issue 1


Editor's Cornet ssc ccccus eves cestucsveteces 1 EOTTGlS 006 60-6050086 5456 66H6 oa bo 0600s VEC eee 2 Since lair-News Networked ccs <sebe swe cae eee 4 £060 Garter § Ci den occ c5 cn 66500 0k ecaecis 7 SUMET T 16 DOS TONG sans 6 0065s cesecceseseceee 9 Adventures In The Ram Jungle (part 2)....10 INTOr OST sos < 0s 050 iene GRE Ceess thee cceseeest Aerco- F0-66 2. .s000¥ een u4 ow ESE he* cawee oe cee lt > Zebra Olsk Drive SysSteities + &ceé tes ceccesael® 2068 ObsTac | O2RUN sides ie 060 atc fence 00 [8 ZPRINT 80 «cc gw es Cee Chae cece seek ond scence? 9? ViEWord, MALI st... =F ORMa 14 vis cee oe os ceveeZ! D'Ktronics Speech Systhesizerececccccccseel22Z T/S Shopping Mart.

@eeeeeeseeee2se parE

TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE COMPANY 29722 Hult Rd.e Colton, Oregon 97017

(SO3) 824-2658

Editor: Tim Woods

Assistant Editor: Stephanie Woods Photography: Tom Judd

Production: D.L. Woods

Contributors; Paul Bingham Duncan Teague

Earl! V. Dunnington Jeff Brothers Stephen Brothers Dennis Jurries John Gaddis

Warren Fricke Michael E. Carver

Tim Woods Printed by: Toad'L Litho Printing and

Composition, Oregon City, OR Time Designs Magazine is published bi- monthly and fs copyrighted © 1985 by the Time Designs Magazine Company. Reproduction of this magazine in whole or in part by any means without written permission is prohibited by law.



2 @ & GD Gh Os ae ee en ee

Sea a aa a aocssesom

"NOTICE: Contributors to TIME DESIGNS are in- dependent of the TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE CO., and opinions expressed in the contents of the magazine are not necessarily those of the management or its advertisers. Time Designs Magazine Co. will not be held liable for any damage or consequences resulting from in- structions, assertions of fact, review of products or companies provided in the maga- zines's content."

Editor’s Corner

Early in September of 1984, we decided to call our new T/S computer magazine "TIME DESIGNS" for several reasons. One of those reasons was not because of TIMEX (as the "X" has obviously been dropped). At this’ same time, many users groups had changed their name to SINCLAIR/TIMEX (instead of the re- verse), due to their bitter disappointment in that company. One associate of mine even peeled off the nameplate sticker on his 2068 and cut out the Timex name, replacing only the "Sinclair 2068" part.

Instead, "TIME" refers to our belief that T/S machines will be around for a _ long "time". They are "timeless" (if you prefer) as their technology has in no way been out- dated. I still feel the "one-key" command system is far superior to anything else that I have used.

The "DESIGNS" part stems from our fond- ness for Uncle Clive's computer "designs"... the ZX-81, 2068, Spectrum, and now the QL. "Designs" also is a reflection of our in- trigue of computer-generated graphics. You may have noticed we feature a lot of graph- ics in the magaZine.

Welcome to Vol. 2 No. 1, our First An- niversary Issue. Before I wrap this up, I wish to express my gratitude. First, to you our loyal readers. In just one year, TIME DESIGNS has grown to be one of the largest Timex/Sinclair publications in America. If those first few subscribers hadn't, realized our potential and sent in their subscription orders [you know who you are], we probably wouldn't be around today.

Also, I wish to thank our contributors who have sent in their excellent materials to be published this last year. And special appreciation and thanks to our loyal and dedicated advertisers also. Without them our T/S community would be non-existent.

In closing, as editor of this magazine, I would like to say that over the next year, I promise to keep up-grading our content and appearance...and that TIME DESIGNS will con- tinue to be published. See you next issue (in 1986)!


Direct all correspondence to: The Editor c/o Time Designs

29722 Hult Rd.,

Colton, OR 9/7017

"T am attempting to build my own inter- face from the 2068 to any popular printer, for example, Epson or others. I would like to know if this subject has been addressed in prior issues. If not, would it be pos- sible to request thru a user's column, some assistance from any of your readers who per- haps have already ‘dabbled' in this area. My interest in computers leans toward 'do it yourself construction', and thus my request. Thank you for your help."

Robert E. Kern Rialto, CA

[Editor: Some may say that we have _ been rather "skimpy" in the area of construction projects. I vote for change right now...this has been one of the most requested columns lately. Anyone out there who wired up their own printer interface, who can assist Mr. Kern? ]

"Accolades for you! Sept/Oct '85 edi- tion of TIME DESIGNS was the best ever...I'd like to hear more about the 128k Spectrun. The single-key commands of Sinclair BASIC are not used on the QOL (I understand). Maybe the attraction of the Spectrum has been the use of the command key system. I have no de- sire for a QL because of the change. I won- der how many others feel the same way. I also wonder how many new 2068 and 1500's there are left with dealers? Keep up _ the the fine work."

Joan Kealy El Paso, TX

Thanks goes to A. Laviolette of Montreal, Canada for sending his two drawings that were made using the program PABLO PIXEL-O (ZX-81 version), featured in the Sept./Oct. issue of TIME DESIGNS.

now received the first two issues (#5 & #6) of my subscription, and I want to congradulate you for a very fine magazine. Many of us are first time users, and self-taught, and far from any known user groups; so the arrival of each issue is an eagerly anticipated event. The suggestion submitted by Mr. Russell Ochoki to publish a column of programming tips and useful short programs certainly receives my endorsement. I would be particularly interested in the use of system calls. (I have tried in vain to obtain a copy of the T/S 2068 Technical Manual.) For example, it took me quite some time to figure out how to BEEP from machine language. (SOUND was easy.) I am happy to Share the following listing. I hope that other readers will find it serviceable.

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commen rime _|

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ows eee || ISSUES

| _ sbevet eee a savings of $3.00 off regular newsstand price







: I


GET SIX ISSUES OF TIME DESIGNS DELIVERED 10 YOUR OWN MAILBOX: Send coupon or a copy, along with a check or m/o for $15 (U.S. FUNDS ONLY) to the



City, State

All numbers are decimal. The value in (TIME) is in 60ths of a second, so that the _ long- est note you can play with this routine is 4.25 seconds (255/60). Also the restrictions

on (TONE) are the same as in the USER MAN- UAL: This value must be in the range -60 (156) to 69. Numbers 70 to 155 will return report code B. FA tupicat cait of this Sub- routine Mat took Like this ;BEEP .i.12 LD a é = LD (TINE: A RLCA LD (TONE: A CALL BEEP Before signing off, I would like to thank

Michael E. Carver for making his PABLO PIXEL O as instructive as possible...I'm looking forward. to issue no. 7!"


Ron Ruegg Baton Rouge, LA

[Editor: Well Ron here is issue no. 7 or Vol.2 No.1 to be exact...and its a pleasure to include you as a part of it. Thanks’ for the listing, I hope that it inspires others to send in their short programs and tips. ]

Subscribe Today!

address’. below.


TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE COMPANY 29722 Hult Rd.e Colton, Oregon 97017


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U.S. QL - $299

Sinclair's 32-bit micro, the QL, now has a suggested retail sticker of $299 U.S.

dollars. Not only is it much more affordable but also easier to obtain. In a generous gesture, Nigel Searle of Sinclair Research

has offered the QOL with incentitives to T/S dealers here in the States. At this writing, seven companies have contacted TIME DESIGNS to announce that they will be handling the $299 OL. They are: Curry Computer, EMC (The English Micro Connection), Knighted Com- puters, Ramex International, RMG Enterprises Sunset Electronics, and Zebra System, Inc.

The new QOL price tag is a follow-up to the half price cut in Europe last September. Sinclair is preparing for what could be a "make-or-break" Christmas selling season in Great Britain.

While the OL emerged upon the home com- puter market with flair, it has been moving Slowly in sales. Sinclair claims that the new price reduction is a result of reduced manufacturing costs, and major savings from a substantial increase in manufacturing vol- ume (based on current sales "commitments" ). Industry-watchers noted that the QOL price cut came three days after the announced re- lease of a competitor's new computer...the Amstrad PCW8526.

Sinclair Research Ltd., feet for the time being, debt rescheduling

is still on its following the major with Barclays Bank and other creditors. Sub-contractors Thorn EMI, Timex Corp. and AB Electronic Products were all agreeable to the terms. These companies assemble Sinclair's computers in contracted factories. Sir Clive, who's lack of manage- ment skills have been well-publicized, has placed a new management team in control of Sinclair Research's future direction.

The QL with its $299 (complete) price should move quite a few units here in the States. A lot of new software is available from the U.K. presently, with hundreds of new titles currently being developed. Sin- clair has just authorized the production of a new floppy disc system (3 inch drives), that should be out sometime early next year.

optional private listening),


The Sinclair 128k Spectrum in no longer rumor, but fact. In September at a home com- puter and electronics show in London, Sin- Clair unveiled their new machine, the last few days of the show. Suprisingly, the 128k Spectrum resembles the T/S 2068 except for the QOL-type black case. It utilizes the 2068 bank-switching, three video modes, three- channel sound chip, and built-in joystick ports. Reportedly it is 100% compatible with all software for older Spectrum models.

As we went to press, the 128k Spectrum was already available in Spain. However, it it is expected to be in the English _ shops after the first of the year. A spokesperson for Sinclair (U.S.):-told TIME DESIGNS that there are no plans to market the 128k Spec- trum in America. Although Bob Dyl of the English Micro Connection announced plans to carry it, when supplys are made available.


The new Sinclair Pocket TV is truly an amazing piece of high-technology. Last week, TIME DESIGNS obtained a sample unit for re- view from Sinclair Research. The Pocket TV is a compact iittie unit 15 1/2" -x.3.-1/2224 1 1/4") with a black plastic case. It util- izes circuit miniaturization extensively. It is powered by Polaroid's unique 6v (flat) Lithium battery. This battery. is rated for 15 hours (total) life. However, an external DC supply jack is also provided. The Pocket TV comes complete with a tiny earphone (for and a smartly- styled velvetine carrying pouch. Suggested retail price is $100.

Unlike most standard TV's, where the picture image is "Shot" from the rear of the set to the front screen surface, the Pocket TV's screen is absolutely "flat", and the viewer peers in at the screen thru a plastic fresnel lens. The viewing area iS aprox. 1 and 1/2 x 1 inch. The Pocket TV is’ tuned by turning a small thumb-wheel (moving a


needle accross a calibrated dial). VHF and

UHF are selected by a switch. The built-in 18 1/2" telescoping antenna pulls the TV

Stations in.

In a side-by-side comparison test with the Sony Watchman, the Sinclair Pocket TV picture clarity was just as good, if not a little better. Not to mention that the Sony retails for twice the price of a Sinclair. The Pocket TV received every available VHF and UHF station in the high-signal strength area. When tested in the "fringe" area, it demonstrated good sensitivity, pulling in about half of the available stations...with fairly decent reception. The volume control on the unit can be adjusted from quiet to Suprisingly loud levels.

If you would like to own one Clive's latest electronic wonders, certainly a "conversation" piece. tical uses for the TV are possible such as private home viewing, camping, or _ sports events. If interested, some T/S dealers have the Sinclair Pocket TV available.


this is some prac-

BNF Enterprises, 119 Foster St, PO Box 3357, Peabody, MA 01961, (617) 531-5774, has several T/S 2040 printers for $38.88


| RAMEX has a new address: 17620 26 Mile Rd., Washington, MI 48094, (313) 781-5800. They are offering the MK Floppy Drive System only as a "package" deal for $400 (includes one quad-density drive, SP-DOS interface, cables, and three software discs including Tasword, Masterfile, and Omni-calc). They have discontinued selling the interface sep- arate, to eliminate problems of buyers using their own incompatible drives, a spokesman from Ramex told TIME DESIGNS. They also have another floppy drive "package" system with dual 3 inch drives and the SP-DOS interface

64 col.

of sit


for $299 (no software a OL dealer, called "ICE" $99 value, Seu OL, computer.

Group Technology, Ltd., POB 87, Check, VA 24072, (703) 651-3153, has T/S books and h/w for interfacing external devices to’ the ZX-81 and 2068.

Zebra Systems, Inc., Woodhaven, NY 11421,

included). Ramex is and includes a ROM cartridge (Icon Controlled Environment), but free to purchasers of the ICE turns the QL into a Mac-1like

78-06 Jamaica Ave, (718) 296-2385, is a company that has supported T/S computers Since the ZX-81. They have recently affirmed their continued support by releasing several new products for the 2068. In stock now are the Zebra Disk Drive Systems (from Portugal) for $349.95. Also in stock is the brand OS-64 Operating System Cartridge, that en- hances the 64 col. video mode of the 2068. feature works on screen, or sent to a full-size printer. Price is $29.95. There are some new software titles available, in- cluding the "Greeting Card Designer" (which is like Atari's Print Shop). Card Designer prints cards of your own design on a full Size printer. Many of Zebra's new programs are available on 3 inch discs. Card Designer is in stock for $19.95 (cassette) and $24.95 (disc). For total order include $3.00. Along with their catalog for the 2068 and_ 1000, they have a QOL s/w and h/w catalog available


to support the $299 OL (yours, just for the asking!).

Small Digital Systems, Inc. have _ two utilities that improve the Hunter 8k RAM Board for the T/S 1000. They are the Memory One and REMC, for $14.99 each. For more in- formation, write to SDS, c/o Product Info Services, 2089 Chatsworth Blvd, Suite 4, San Diego, CA 92107, or phone (619) 569-2743.

The English Micro Connection just put their new 36 page Sept.-Dec. catalog in the

mail. Considerably larger and professionally printed, it lists a wide variety of English computer products for the Sinclair Spectrum. All of the s/w and h/w has been tested by EMC for 100% compatability with the T/S 2068 (modified with some form of Spectrum emu- lation). The catalog contains lots of photos and descriptions for reference. If you not on their mailing list, 15 Kilburn Ct., Newport, RI (401) 849-3805.

DAMCO Enterprises is having a Holiday sale. The Wafadrive system for the 2068 (complete with their new Rainbow plus Spectrum Interface) is priced for a limited

are write to them at 02840, or phone



time at $175 plus $5 S&H. They also have several Spectrum software package deals (on cassette). For example, a grab bag of three titles may contain one or more of these titles: Chess, Dungeon Master, Traxx, Ship of Doom, ect. The price? $9.95. There are many more deals including educational soft- ware. If interested, contact DAMCO at: 67 Bradley Ct., Fall River, MA 02720, or phone

(617) 678-2110.

Kurt A. Casby, 25 Battle Creek Ct., St. Paul, MN 55119, has written a utility pro- gram for Westridge's MTERM modem software. It expands MTERM's buffer to allow the user to load up long text files from Tasword. The program also adds further capabilities to

the auto-dial (and macro key) section. For more information and pricing/dealers, write to Mr. Casby at the address above.

A new company from "up north", Beaver Computer Products, has two software titles. available for the 2068. "Character Font Gen- erator" aides the user in designing custom character sets or UDG's, and is priced at

$25. "Advanced Video Modes" is a utility for 2068's dual Screen, extended color, and 64 column modes. It is priced at $15. All soft- ware prices are quoted in Canadian funds. Postage and handling is free. Write to: 999 Munroe Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2K 1J4.


Carver Technologies is a T/S Connection. They will repair clair computers for a nominal fee. they are not an authorized warranty outlet. All warranty repairs should be to Timex in Little Rock, Arkansas. Carver Technologies have developed some enhance- ments for T/S products such as a stereo jack for the 2068, LED power indicator for the 2068, and a power supply switch for the 2040 printer. For information on service rates and add-on modifications, write to: The T/S Connection, 3832 Watterson Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45227.

The Greater Cincinnati Users Group has developed a 2068-based BBS which is now op- erational. It will become fully-operational on a nation wide basis in a few weeks’ with the addition of an Aerco Disk Drive System. A Mr. Jack Roberts c/o The T/S Connection has more details on the BBS.

A Midwest ZX/TS Computer Fair is in the planning stages. Mr. Frank Davis, 513 East

division of Timex/Sin- However, repair sent


Main St, Peru, IN 46970, would any reader input or suggestions. number is (317) 473-4885. Compuserve I.D. is 75525,1325. The Computer Fair is scheduled for this next spring.

appreciate His phone


lf your Timex/Sinclair Users Group hasn't been listed in TIME DESIGNS before, such as the directory in the

March/April 85 issue, or an update...please send us the information so that we can mention you. We have added new members to groups because of this listing.

Here are some additional ones to add to your list:

Dallas Timex Sinclair User Group 2624 E. Park Blvd.

Plano, TX 75074

Contact: Julie Barrett

Omaha Timex/Sinclair User Group 2104 So. 35th Ave

Omaha, NE 68105

Contact: Dan Hargens (Secretary) Group would like to contact other groups for purpose of trading info.

PC Users Group Of New York

(formerly ZX Users Group of NY)

Box 560-Wall St.

New York, NY 10005

Publishes PC World News Bulletin $15/year for membership/subscription

Mexican Timex/Sinclair User Group c/o M. Adriana Rodriguez Maldonado

Tlaloc #21, Col. Tlaxpana are Pes SE Pi. Mexico, D.F. oS 6 ae e Ge 6 ER ERRATUM Ge @ SS © Ew o aE

the article (Part One)" Page 14, Col. 2, (instead of 819).

There were a few typos in "Adventures In The Ram Jungle in the Sept./Oct.'85 issue: Line 23, should read 8191 Page 15, Col. 1, Line 19, should read "In- itialization" (instead of "Itialization"). Page 15, Col. 1, Line 27, the colon at _ the end of program line 30, should be ae semi- colon. Also, Jack Keene (3515 Ingleside Dr., Dallas, TX 75229) pointed out that the info Supplied about his SWITCHBOARD (in the Spec- trum Wares section) was incorrect. Instead of being installed in the cartridge dock, it is an internal modification similar to Bill Russell's ROMSWITCH.

peliatrix on \ ORION el, Everyone enjoys looking at the stars on a starry night even when they do not consider themselves amateur astronomers. A standard pair of binoculars can reveal some breathtaking sights in the night sky. They can show Jupiter and between two and four of its moons...including the forbidden Europa 2010 fans! Jupiter is quite a sight all summer long. Halley's comet is coming and will be easy to spot in those same binoculars by November, if one knows where to look.

But if everyone feels as I do, the heavens can be a little confusing when it comes down to finding things. If one does not know the constellations, or has no idea where to look to find anything less obvious than the full moon, then I may have just the remedy. The 2068 can direct us, using the accompanying program listing.

Up until now, looking things up in an

astronomical reference only provided some

coordinates given as "Right Ascension" and "Declination" or "RA" and "Dec". These strange figures are for aiming telescopes accurately, but are generally meaningless to the casual observer. The 2068 can make sense out of most anything, and such is the case with RA and Dec. The computer can convert these values into an easier to follow set of horizontal and vertical coordinates called altitude and azimuth.

Altitude indicates the relative height in the sky being zero at the horizon and progressing to 90, directly over-head. Simple enough. Azimuth is just as easy. Remember a compass with north, east, south, and west? Azimuth follows the compass clock- wise with zero as north, 90 as east, 180 as south, and so on to 360 (north again). Even if numbers zero to 360 are confusing, the program prints out the compass directions too.

The program spits out values by time of day for which compass direction (azimuth) to look and how high off the horizon (altitude) to look, to find just what we are searching for. By using any set of RA and Dec values


by Paul Bingham

in an astronomy book or from magazines like ASTRONOMY or SKY AND TELESCOPE, we can easily find any object in the sky any time for any date. Our program and the 2068 handle all the calculating...all we do is look where it indicates and enjoy!

PROGRAM NOTES: The program is designed to be

Simple and straight forward. One - can naturally alter it to suit one's taste, but lines 30 thru 115 are the program's core, and should be entered as is.

As the program listing stands now, "o" and "L" for longitude and latitude in line 5 are set for my location. Someone in the local liabrary map room can help with these values if available nowhere else. The factor "kK" in line 5 is set for 1985. Values for [the years] '86 thru '89 are: 6.6241, 6.6081, 6.5921, 6.6419 respectively. The value "v" is the time zone displacement. The west coast is 8, the east coast is 5, my zone in Arizona is 7.

RA and Dec are always listed in hours- minutes-seconds fashion. Rounding to the nearest hour value is generally accurate enough. The program will accept hour values with decimal input, if real accuracy is re- quired. One must remember to enter a minus sign if one is listed with the RA or Dec value. 5 oe

The 24 time system is required by the program. This is familiar to most everyone, but in case one is rusty...midnight is zero. The value increases by one, each hour thru noon (12). Then 1:00pm becomes 13 and so on to 11:00pm (23). Figure A for Jupiter will show that even fractions of the hour are accepted.

The program will indicate a minus altitude value for any object below the horizon. Objects near due south, or directly

over-head sometimes give less accurate results until the object moves. The remainder of the program needs no

explanation to run.



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