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At a public Meeting held on Wednesday, the 17th June, 1829, in the Public Library, Cape Town, of inhieh A. Oxrenant, Esq. His Majesty’s Attorney General, was Chairman, it was resolved,—That an Institution be established for investigating the Geography, Natural History, and general Resources of

South Africa.


1. The Institution to be supported by contributions, sub- scriptions, and such other resources as may arise.

2. The Institution to comprise Ordinary Members, Privi- leged Members, Honorary Members, Corresponding Members,

Resident and Non-Resident Annual Subscribers, unlimited in number.

“3. ‘Persons desirous of becoming Members, to be ballotted for. No person shall be eligible to be ballotted for either as an ordinary or corresponding Member, but upon the recom- mendation of two Members. The proposition for the admission of such ordinary or corresponding Member, to be read at the General Monthly Meeting immediately preceding that at which the ballot will take place, and to be placed in a con- spicuous part of the Institution Rooms during the interim.

4. Ordinary Members to contribute not less than three

Pounds Sterling, and an annual subscription of one Pound ten Shillings.

5. Ordinary Members, only, shall have the power to vote in all questions and matters relating to the property and management of the Institution.

6. Any person making a donation to the Institution of not less than ten Pounds Sterling, to become a privileged Member, and to have the power of introducing five Visitors to the Museums and Gardens.

7. Honorary Members to be persons eminent for scientific acquirements, resident abroad. To be elected at Annual General Meetings. To have the right of access to all Museums and Gardens, and other such Repositories of the Institution, and of attending all Monthly and Annual Meetings, when in the Colony.

8. Corresponding Members to be persons residing in the Colony or elsewhere, who are likely to promote the objects of the Institution, and to have the privileges of honorary Members.


9. An annual subscription of one Pound, ten Shillings, to entitle the Subscriber to a free entrance to all General Meetings of the Institution, and to the Museums or other Repositories-belonging to it, and the privilege of introducing’ to the latter, his family resident in his house.

10. Any person having the right to attend General Meetings, may bring one Visitor with him; but the name of such Visitor, and of the Member introducing him, must be first communicated i in writing to the Chairman, and med aloud by him.

11. Any person residing in the Colony beyond eight miles from Cape Town, who subscribes fifteen Shillings Sterling, or contributes articles to the Repositories of the Institution to that amount yearly, shall have, when in Cape Town, the privileges of resident Annual Subscribers.

12. The Institution to have Office-Bearers, to be elected from the Ordinary Members, viz:

A Patron.—To have the option of being Chairman at all Meetings when present, and all the privileges of a privileged Member.

A President.—Who shall, when present, be Chairman of all Meetings at which the Patron does not officiate.

Four Vice Presidents.—One of whom shall, by rotation, act as Chairman in the absence of the President.

A Treasurer.

Two Secretaries.—One to have the charge of the Minutes, and the other of the Correspondence.

Nine Members of Council.

13. All Office-Bearers, except the Patron, to be elected annually at a General Meeting of the Members. Two-thirds of the Members of Council to go out annually by seniority.

14. All Office-Bearers to be Members of Council, with the same rights as other Members; except that the Chairman officiating, only, shall have a casting vote.

15. Six Members of Council, including the Chairman, to be a quorum.

16. Committees of Council to consist of at least two Members, with power to associate with themselves, for par- ticular purposes, any Member, or Annual Subscriber to the Institution, whom the Council may approve of.


17. Vacancies in the Council to be filled up by nomination of the existing Council.

18. Neither the President, nor Vice Presidents, shall hold the Office of Treasurer or Secretary.

19. The Council shall have the power to make By-Laws, to remain in force until the next General Meeting ; and power to sell or exchange duplicates of the Articles in the Reposi- tories of the Institution, and to purchase others; but all sales or purchases of other property belonging to, or for the Institu- tion, must be sanctioned by a Meeting of ordinary Members. The Council to haye the sole charge of the funds of the Institu- tion, for the general purposes thereof, except in so far as they may be controled by a vote of the Ordinary Members for any particular purpose.

20. General Monthly Meetings to be held for the purpose of hearing Essays and Communications, or Reports of the Committees, if directed by the Council; and for other business.

21. All Papers’ to be read at the General Monthly Meetings, shall be first examined and approved by the Council.

22. Persons desirous of making communications verbally, must give notice of the subject thereof to the Council: any person present may make obseryations thereon. -

23. General Annual Meetings to be held on the first Monday in June of each year, at 12 o’clock, a.m. and General Monthly Meetings on the last Wednesday of every month, at 8 o’clock, P.M.

24. The Secretaries to open the General Annual Meetings, - by a Report of the Proceedings of the Institution during the past year. The other Officers to detail the state of their several Departments; and the President, or another Member deputed by him, shall close the Meeting by a Discourse on the progress of knowledge during the past year.

25. The Museum, Gardens, and other Repositories of the Institution, to be open to the public, under Regulations to be fixed by the Council for the time being.


Privileged Members. His Excellency the Hon. Sir G. L. Coxz, G.C. B.

Ordinary Members.

Rey. Dr. Adamson, Captain Bance,

Mr. Beddy,

The Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Bell, Mr. Biel,

Mr. P. G. Brink,

Mr. J. Brink,

Mr. Bowie,

Mr. M. van Breda, Mr. von Buchenroder, Mr. E. A. Buyskes, Mr. C. Burton,

Mr. Chiappini,

Major Cloete,

Mr. H. Cloete,

Mr. D. Cloete,

Mr. Collison,

Rev. I. Cooke,

Mr. Crozier,

Mr. Dickinson,

Major Dundas,

Dr. Dyce,

Mr. Ebden,

Rey. F. Fallows, Rey. A. Faure,

Mr. Hawkins, H. C. Service, Dr. Horstock, Lieut.-Col. Holloway, Royal Engineers, Mr. H. Hertzog,

Mr. Hamilton,

Mr. Jardine,

Mr. Joubert,

Rey. E. Judge,

7 Mr. J. Jones, H. C. Service, Mr. Laing, Mr. von Ludwig, Mr. Mackrill, Mr. Miller, Mr. Muntingh, Dr. Murray, Mr. Norton, Mr. Nourse, Mr. Oliphant, Mr. Paton, Mr. Poupart, Mr. Reid, Mr. Reits, Captain Ronald, Mr. Skirrow, Dr. Smith, The Hon. Mr. Stoll, Mr. G. Thompson, Sir John Truter, Mr. J. Verreaux, Mr. Villet, Mr. Watermeyer.

W. Bridekirk, Printer.

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Vol. IL.


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CAPE TOWN: Printed at the *‘ Albion Press,’ Grave-sireet ; AND PUBLISHED BY A. S. ROBERTSON, SHORTMARKET-STREE? ; AND

J, M. Ricuarpson, 23, Cornhill, London.

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Wo. f. OCTOBER—DECEMBER, 1833. Part lL.

An Account of the Amakosae, a tribe of Caffers adjoining the Eastern Boundary of the Cape Colony. By N. Morean, Esq. Assistant Staff-Surgeon.—(Abridged.)

{Read at the South African Institution. ]

Tae formation of a colony of Europeans at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, was the precussor of a great change in the con- dition of the Hottentot people, the original possessors of the country. A settlement was obtained by treaty, and an increase of territory at various times was gained both by seizure and conquest, so that from possessing a few acres of land only in 1659, the Dutch at the time of the British conquest, were masters of nearly all the country, and the original proprietors of the land were the servants of their conquerors.

_ Though the desire to possess land capable of affording pas- turage for their flocks induced many of the Dutch inhabitants to leave the protection of their own Government and seek it in a dangerous and troubled country, yet others made this re- moval from a far more culpable motive, in seeking thereby to obtain possession of the flocks of the defenceless natives. This was done under various pretences, sometimes by interfering in their internal disputes and acting as the avengers of those who were sufferers; at others, by boldly attacking the neighbouring kraals and taking the flocks of the scattered people. These causes produced a state of hostility against the European in the surrounding tribes, and by them they were often deprived of their illgotten herds. Their lands and houses were frequently ravaged and destroyed, and their lives even at times fella sacrifice to this general feeling of depredation and revenge. On these occasions the Colonists always had recourse to their own Government for protection; and the usual plan to remedy these evils was, to unite to the colony that part of the land so inhabited. While the Dutch were thus gradually encroaching on the Hottentot limits from the Westward, the Caffers were making encroachments on the East, and about 1786, when the district of Graaff-Reinet was formed, the two parties of Con- querors, or aggressors, came in contact; and the Caffers still

4 Mr. Morgan’s Account of the Amakosae,

pursuing their system of aggrandisement became often opposed to the Colonists.

The Hottentot tribes were then possessors of little territory; is was bounded by the sea on the South, by the Colonists on the West and North, and by the Caffers on the East. The attacks of the Caffers had always been conducted on the principle of extermination, for by them the Hottentot men were always slain if they could not effect their escape. The women were taken, and their cattle driven away; the Caffers succeeding them in the possession of the depopulated land; and by these means they had occupied the Hottentot Country as far West as the Sunday River; and the Frontier Colonists often suffered in like manner as the Hottentots had done from their predatory inroads.

The Hottentots had now dwindled into a very few tribes ; some of these began to unite with the Caffers in their aggres- sions on the colony, others threw themselves entirely under the protection of the colonists; and the remaining part of their country in i798 fell into the hands of the Europeans. Since that time the Uaffers have been forced to relinquish that part of the country that is to the west of the Keiscamma River, and since 1825 have ceased to assail the colony, and have become a nation trading with the European Colonists on the system of mutual interest and benefit.

The country at present occupied by the Caffers, is nearly of a rectangular form,—the northern side is bounded by an ex- tensive chain of mountains; the country beyond which is, te the north-east, inhabited by the Tambookies, on the north-west by the Bushmen. The eastern part is bounded by the Bashee River and the country of the Tambookies ;. the western part joins the colony, and the south-east borders on the sea. It is 150 miles in length; its breadth is uneven, being from 30 to 90 miles; containing about 10,000 square miles.

These mountains are very high, and are covered with large forests, in which various timber trees, most of them common to the colony, flourish luxuriantly. The woody summits intercept the clouds that are wafted by the winds from the ocean, and furnish constant supplies to the numerous springs which form the sources of the many rivers flowing from them toward the sea. Though the distance from their source to their union with the ocean is comparatively short, yet the body of water in these rivers is very considerable; and the unevenness of the ground through which they have cut their tract, the rocky pro- jections that frequently divide their streams, and the falls that constantly oceur between the interior and the shore, cause them to impart a charming freshness and vivacity to thesurrounding eountry through which they find their way.

a Tribe of Caffers on the East of the Cape Golony. 38

The face of the country is very uneven, the higher ground being formed of plains and ridges from which branch a number of kloofs and ravines, each of which opens into some stream or river. The upper part of the country, or that nearest the mountains, is the least intersected by these ravines, and is also more open than the lower part next the sea, which is full of ridges. The whole country abounds with the Mimosa tree; and the courses of the rivers, streams, and ravines are frequently concealed by thick bush; the different species composing which are the same as are met with in similar situations in the colony. The climate is very healthy, and does not materially differ from that of the eastern part of the colony. ‘The winter is here general - ly the dry season. ‘The spring is showery, but the greatest falls of rain happen in the summer and autumn, and are always attend- ed with thunder, lightning, and hurricanes of wind. The rivers and streams which before were fordable, almost everywhere at this time become torrents, rushing with inconceivable rapidity, and swelling to a great height, so as to render them for a time quite impassable. The water, however, soon runs off, and they sink to their former level. ‘The mouths of none of these rivers are navigable.

I shall now endeavour to give some account of the general history of these nations, first premising that it is very difficult if not impossible to acquire any correct knowledge on this head, as they have used no method of recording past events. Their oral traditions scarcely appear to have preserved any thing of their origin; and every person seems to speak only from his own recollection. If you desire intelligence of an earlier date than he is able to give, you are referred to an older per= son, who, perhaps, may give a little more information of former events. Thus every affair of past times is very imper- fectly obtained, and even the most’recent circumstances are collected by the enquirer with the greatest difficulty.

The only tradition among them of their origin is, that the first Caffers came out of a cave, which they describe as being situated to the eastward, somewhere between Caffraria and Tambookieland, and from thence they spread over the country towards the setting sun. The name of the cave they call D’Daliwe. Dala is the word they use for the Creator, and Uka Dalwa the Creation.

They say that there was only one Chief formerly, and that from him came all the different Captains of the present time ; and, by a Chronological Table compiled by a Missionary of the Glasgow Missionary Society, it appears that, in all instances, the various chiefs trace their families into the same stock, at a few generations back, probably about two centuries ago, during the time of a chief of the name of Um Conde,

4 © Mr. Morgan’s Account of the Amakosae,

T am led therefore to conclude that about this period the first division of these people began, and also that their first encroachments upon the Hottentot country took place about this time. That the Hottentots at one time possessed the country to the westward of the Kay River is extremely proba- ble, because the names of all the rivers from thence, in that direction, are still in their language, as well as many to the eastward as far as the Bashee.

The Mandanhie tribe derive their origin from Um Dangie, ‘a son of Un Conde, and as these were the most advanced Caffers, having possessed themselves of the country as far to the westward as the Sunday River, it is probable he was the first chief who led out his people from the main body and sought a new possession by conquest from the Hottentots.

Um Bange, a grandson of Un Conde, is the head from whom the chief of those Caffers now on the Buffalo River has de- scended. The chief U’Queno derives his origin from U’Lango, a sonof U’Palo, and with his people formerly possessed the country to the west of the Fish River, but it was during the time of U’Calika that the greatest and last division took place, when all the people to the westward of the Kai River became in a manner free from the immediate controul of the direct descendants of Un Conde. U’Henza is the present chief in this line, and is acknowledged to be the head of the whole people, and still possesses some kind of authority or influence over all the other chiefs, for to him are referred all disputes respecting authority, guardianship of minors, &c. and he fre- quently of himself also inquires into and decides upon affairs of major and minor importance to the nation, and his interference is not thought any encroachment on the power or authority of the other chiefs, but they readily submit to his opinion on the subject.

The only regular accounts of their proceedings that can be collected, commences in the time of U’Caleka, the third in descent from Un Conde, who it appears ruled absolutely over all the people for some time, until his brother U’Raraba, who was a man of great influence, and much esteemed by the whole nation, resisted some of his unpopular measures, and was joined by a numerous party. A civil war ensued, and ended in the division above alluded to: from that time he acted inde- pendently of his brother. At the death of U’Caleka the part of the Government that remained to him descended to his son U’Kanta, who was succeeded about twelve years ago by U’Henza, He it is who now rules over those Caffers who in- habit the country to the East of the Great Kai River. U’Raraba, the brother of U’Caleka, who caused the division of the people, succeeded in establishing his authority. He

a Tribe of Caffers on the East of the Cape Colony. &

was a great warrior, and had many children, who, in the wars in which their father was engaged against the Hottentots and Tambookies, became celebrated for their bravery. The prin- cipal mentioned are Un Lawie, Un Acube, Un Thlambe, Un Tsusa, and UnNukwa. UnUawie was much liked by his father, both on account of his being his successor, and for the great daring and bravery he manifested in the field. He fell in battle, having gone with a great command to make an attack upon the Tambookies—it proved unsuccessful ; the TTambookies fighting bravely, killed many of their enemies, and among them Un Lawie himself. U’Raraba being much enraged at this loss called all his people to arms, and with them immediately pro- ceeded to avenge his son’s death. To insure success they took a large number of bullocks, (at that time the Caffers used these animals in their wars.) The Tambookics having heard of their preparations assembled a large force to defend themselves, and received U’Raraba’sattack with great courage and skill. When the oxen, as was the custom, were driven on them to break their ranks, and put them into confusion, the Tambookies divided themselves and mixed with the oxen, and having got command of these animals, they drove them back on the Caffers, and succeeded in breaking through and seattering them. A very great slaughter followed, and among them who fell was U’Raraba himself, with several of his children; and all the cattle became the prize of the conqueror. By these two dis- astrous campaigns the Caffers sustained so great a loss that they never afterwards dared engage in any great enterprize against the Tambookies, but turned their arms against their less courageous enemies, the Hottentots and Bushmen.

By the death of U’Raraba and UnLawie, the sovereignity fell to Gika, the son of the latter, but he being very young Un Thlambe, his uncle, was chosen Regent. Un'Thlambe is spoken of as having been at this time a very powerful and just Ruler, and not only able to defend his own part of the country, but also to protect the independence of that of Gika; and he appears, during the minority of Gika, to have acted as supreme Ruler of the whole nation West of the Kai River.

This difficult task he is said to have managed with great prudence and address, for, by promising to abandon the rule when the young Chief was of age sufficient take to the power into his own hands, he was supported by most of his brothers, and retained the Government against all opposition. But when Gika assumed the Government of his own kingdom, and expected that U’Thlambe’s would also be under his authority, U’Thlambe refused, and being supported by the chiefs of U’Henza’s people, several battles were fought with various success. But Gika appears in the end to have been successful, for many chiefs of


6 Mr. Morgan’s Account of the Amakosae,

the adverse party were slain in the field, and a pitched battte being fought between the parties, U’Thlambe’s party was entirely defeated. U’Thlambe and one of U’Henza’s brothers fell into the hands of the conquerors. U’Thlambe, after sub- mitting to Gika, was set at liberty, because (as it is reported ) Gika said “he had taught him to govern;” but the brother of U’Henza fell pierced through by Gika’s own assagai. Some time after, on account of some obnoxious measures of Gika, a confederacy against him was formed by various chiefs, headed by U’Thlambe. This appeared so formidable that Gika was obliged to submit, and to renounce all covtroul over U’Phlambe or his people. A treaty was formed, in which each acknow- ledged the sovereignity of the other, and a boundary was fixed as the extent of each other’s rule.

This peace between Gika and U’Thlambe did not last long, for on some of U’Thlambe’s people seizing a crane which Gika’s people had killed, (this bird is valuable to the Caffers on account of the long shoulder feathers which they wear on their heads when engaged in a war,) Gika made it a pretence to enter U’Thlambe’s country and seize his cattle. This renewed the war, in which, though U’Henza himself did not appear, yet many of his chiefs went to the assistance of U’Thlarabe,— Gika was defeated in a great battle, and brought nearly to the brink of ruin, when he met with a protector in the English, by whose interference U’Thlambe was compelled to relinquish what he had gained by his successes, and enter into treaty of amity with Gika. U’Thlambe by this treaty retained Sovereign rule over his people, but acknowledged the authority of Gika.

This is the last’general war that has taken place amongst the Caffers,

The Chief U’Thlambe died 14th of February 1828, having lived to a great age; and on the 15th of November the follow- ing year (1829) Gika died, himself having hastened this event by the great intemperance of his latter years,

U’Thlambe retained the respect of his people to the last. He had been a great warrior, and though the situation of his country had for many years prevented him from exercising this talent, yet his former skill and bravery were the constant theme of the people, and the youth were instructed to respect and look up to him as one of their greatest Heroes, and his various deeds were pointed out to them as most worthy of imitation.

Gika, on the contrary, was never celebrated as a warrior, but was spoken of as very little skilled in the affairs of war, and as not possessing any great degree of personal courage even when the times required that it should be shown. His character was totally different from that of his father and grand-father, who were men of great enterprize and courage, desirous of the

a Tribe of Caffers on the East of the Cape Colony. 7

agfrandizement of their country, and generally occupied in seeking it by finding constant occasions for war with the neigh- bouring nations. Gika took no delight in exertions of this kind, but manifested great aversion to war. His habits of life were indolent, and his disposition sluggish, but though this was the case he was a very inquisitive and keen observer of every thing that passed under his notice, and was a man of great ingenuity and cunning. He was a great orator, and prided himself upon this talent ; he was quick in his perceptions, and lively in his speeches, at times keeping his auditors in constant laughter, and then again fixing their most serious attention. His policy as a chief was cautious and deliberative, but did not appear to reach beyond the present time. He was very rapa- cious but not tyrannical; though his exactions were frequent they were not rigid; and he exaeted more to gratify those who were round him than to satisfy his own wants. He was neither loved nor feared by his people ; their attachment was grounded on their regard to the memory of his father and his hereditary descent. His death was neither regretted nor lamented by the people.

The principal subordinate chieftians ruling the people form- ing the western part of the Caffer nation, which, from its vicinity to the Colony, is that which is most known, and of which I shall now more particularly notice, are U’Maaquomo, the eldest son of Gika and present Regent (a young child being the real heir for the reasons mentioned hereafter) ; Un Carle and Un Matwa, sons of Gika; Un Queno, grand-uncle to Gika; Un Phundis, a grand-son of Un Thlambe, Gika’s uncle; and U’Botuman, a great grand-son of Um Dange; and the family of the Congos.

That part about the sources of the Keiskamma River is under Gika’s son, U’Matwa. The sourees of the Chumie River is the part that is governed by U’Carle. The lower part of that River is under the command of U’Macquomo, who is the Regent of the whole people lately under Gika. The course of the Keiskamma River below Fort Willshire is the country under the command of the chiefs U’Botuman and U’Queno. Below this, U’Dushonie’s son, Un Phundis, has a small part along the boundary that is under his control, but the greater part is situated farther back in the rear of Un Queno’s covern- ment. From this chieftain’s boundary to the sea coast is the part that is under the command of the U’Congo family. This person has lately arrived at the dignity of Chief; his power originated in the accession of the Gonooka tribe of Hottentots. Un Phundis possesses a tract of land to the eastward, and situated along the Great Kai River. Un Tsusa and Un Nakwa, relations of Gika’s, are chieftains of the country along the

8 Mr. Morgan’s Account of the Amakosae,

mouttains te the east of U’Matwa’s people, and about the sources of the Buffalo River.

Their want of skill in computation, and their ignorance of the real number of people that are under the command of the different chiefs, make it very difficult to ascertain with correct- ness the amount of the population of their country ; though the following calculation of the strength and numbers of those people may not therefore be quite correct, yet it is as near so as circumstances would permit it to be made; and will afford a pretty accurate knowledge of the strength of each chief. The whole population of the west part of Cafferland appears thus to amount to 150,000, men, women, and children. The male population is above 25,000, of whom about 16,000 only are warriors; but when any favorite expedition is engaged in; many others flock to the standard of their chiefs; and swell their ranks to a greater number.

The following is the estimated population of Cafferland :—

Under whose command. Men. Women Total. and Children.

U’Gika’s Sons and Uncles ..«eoe 6000 .. 30,000 .«. 36,000 U’ Botuman see cceeceesecesese 2000 ee 10,000 ee 12,000 U’ Queno eee eer reas esaseeeese 3000 ee 15,000 o~ 18,000 U’Dushanie and Childrén ,..... 4000 .. 20.000 .. 24,000 Un Thlambe and Children .....- 5000 .. 25,000 .. 30,000 Un Phundis eeeseeseestecessee 2000 ee 10,000 oe 12,000 Congo and Family ..ccosecses 3000 .. 15,000 .. 18,000

Total 25,000 125,000 150,000

The amount of the military force of Cafferland is above 18,000, of which number any enterprising chief might bring 12,000 together, to support him in any measure that would meet with the universal approbation of the Caffer chiefs.

There are frequent skirmishes between the people of the different chieftains; most commonly arising from disputes between Herdsmen respecting water and pasturage, or acts of aggression on those who are not under their authority. The de- sertion of some wealthy individual from his own chief to another, is also a frequent cause of dispute, and these sometimes can only be decided by an appeal to arms. These skirmishes have lately seldom led to any serious war, for some of the neighbouring chiefs generally interfere, and a fine of cattle is received for the offence that has given rise to the dispute.

Though I have hitherto spoken of those people as a nation existing under the regular control of acknowledged rulers, yet we must bear in mind that the political union of all rude nations is so very incomplete, their civil regulations so few, and the authority to enforce those regulations so very feeble, that they

a Tribe of Caffers on the East of the Cape Colony. 9

Ynay in this state almost with propriety be deemed independent agents, rather than a people united together in the bonds of a regular society.

The chiefs are not so despotic, nor are they so tyrannical in the exercise of their power as has beén long and generally sup- posed. Tt is considered quite proper to arm and resist his power, when the chief attempts to punish the people of any kraal; and many of these communities being united to each other by relationship or other ties, they fly to the assistance of the one in distress ; so that, in perhaps eight cases out of ten, the chief’s party is successfully repelled: in these eircum- Stances a treaty is commenced, and a small fine generally satisfies the chief for this resistance to his authority; but even this is often refused. No affair of conseqfence can be entered into by the chief without the consent of his council, which is never given if they think the act will be contrary to established custom, Or injurious to the nation at large; there is in fact no chief in Cafferland whose power approaches in any degree to despotism; they cannot act against long established usage 5 and the minor chiefs and peoplé are very jealous of their rights, and are daily encroaching on those of their chiefs. At this time the power of every chief is so nugatory that no dependance can be placed upon any promise or treaty they may make. The people would laugh at it, and they would, if for their in- terest, break it inithediately.

These observations are supported by the opinion of the Missionaries, who have long resided among them, and are thus capable of judging in their affairs with greater accuracy than any traveller er casual observer. One of them says, Many of the actions and proceedings of the chiefs and vreat men of this country shock every feeling of humanity. Yet the power exercised by them in these acts does not flow so much from any absolute authority that the chiefs possess, as from tyrant cus- roms. Most of the cruelties ‘practised can plead the use and wont of the people, which are considered as law, or the rule by which the chiefs act.” And again, “The actings of the chief are more frequently the carrying into execution the ad- vice of these men (that is his council) than the gratification of his own desires.” Another writes me, However disposed a chief may be to enter into a treaty,—and however disposed he might be to keep inviolate his engagements, yet his own de- pendance on the tribe would totally incapacitate him from ful- filling it; for if not satisfied with his government, they would revolt, and be received with open arms by a rival chief.”

The following brief account of the state of society in Caffer- land will make this apparent, and show in’ some measure the state in which the Caffers exist as a nation :-—


10 Mr. Morgan’s Account of the Amakosae,

' Kraal is the name given to their villages by the Europeans ; these in general are formed by the members of one family, and by others united to that family in bonds of friendship or servitude, for there exists in Cafferland a state of vassalage.

This kraa] is under the controul of a person who is generally the senior of the whole, and always the father of many who form this society ; to him belong the greatest part of the flocks, which are pastured near it; to him they look for assistance and advice,—a sort of patriarchal authority exists in him, and according to the extent of his fame as a man of judgment and equity, so is his advice sought after and followed by similar and surrounding kraals, and he beeomes a sort of natural councillor to a portion of the nation.

The brothers, sons, and nephews of the king, who have ob- tained a name from their experience or ability in the affairs of the nation, or their daring and bravery in the chace or war, also form kraals ; and to these persons are attached a number of the more brave and ardent of the people. From the most experienced of these chiefs of kraals and divisions a council is formed, who esteem it as their right to advise and direct their king in affairs of national importance ; and contrary to this ad- vice no king has power to act. In conformity with the dic- tates of this assemblage of chiefs, the king leads to war, or negociates for peace. Their advice in favour of war is fol- lowed by an arming of the whole land. Their recommendation of peace re-calls the warriors to their respective homes, and the person of the sovereign is forsaken by all exeept his own immediate followers, who compose but a small part of the force of the nation, and are only members of a society similar to the others, but of which the king is chief.

The government of these individual societies is vested. in their own chicfs, and they are entirely under his sway ; he may be compared to the father of a large family, receiving sub- mission and respect from them, and bestowing rewards or dispensing punishment as to him may seem proper. From his decision no appeal is made, and the advice of no other is sought, except as a matter of choice, when a case of more com- plicated nature comes under their notice. When the matter in dispute involves a question of the right of another chief, then it is considered as a national one, and the king and council take cognizance of it, and the punishment of the offender de- volves on the king, to whom belongs the fine which is generally in these cases exacted from the offender.

It will appear by these observations that each chief is the rnler of a small independent state, subject however to this re- straint, that he is under the jurisdiction of an assemblage of chiefs who are similarly situated as he is,—that a supremacy

a Tribe of Caffers on the East of the Cape Colony. 11

vested in one person is acknowledged by these several chiefs, and that the right of possessing that supreme power is derived from hereditary descent. ‘The right of succession to the supreme power depends upon the claimant being of royal descent both on the father’s and mother’s side.

The degree of relationship which exists between the chiefs of these people prevents them from intermarrying with the females of each other, as it is a custom with them not to marry with any that they suppose to be in any degree related to them ; they, therefore, choose a consort from the royal family of the tribe of Tambookies, and the eldest male offspring of such alliance is the person entitled to the succession.

As polygamy exists among them the chiefs take several wives from among the common people, but the offspring of these wives never possess the sovereignty, though they raise themselves to great power, and often become the guardians of the kingly authority.

If the heir is a minor, he is taken under the care of one of the chiefs, who is appointed generally by a council of the chiefs to act as regent during the minority.

All the cattle, arms, and lands are considered as the pro-. perty of the king ; every person tacitly acknowledges that his flocks, wives, and every thing he possesses is derived from his sovereign ; and when the cattle are seized for any real or alleged offence, it is said he was not worthy to be trusted with the king’s property, and that therefore he has only taken his own to bestow it on some more worthy person. The subordinate chiefs, inlike manner, claim the property of all those who are under their controul, and when they levy a fine it is in the king’s name and for his use, and they always send a portion of it to him.

There is no stated revenue for the support of the royal dignity: the wealth of the king arises from his own private patrimony, for though he claims all the property of the people, and they acknowledge the justness of the claim, yet they never voluntarily give up any thing, nor can he deprive them of it without a pretence be offered, or be framed for that purpose. Fines for the offences of his subjects, real or alleged, form one method of increasing his wealth; another is, a share of the plunder acquired in a successful incursion, but if the act be resented and restitution demanded, and the king is not willing to sanction and defend the aggression, restitution is made out of the property of the offender, and the remainder is retained by the king. Also whep any man dies, all the cattle that he had in possession are taken by the chief to whom he belonged, and in this case part of them is sent to the royal kraal. Part also of the price obtained for their cattle or for game is claimed

12 Mr. Morgan's Account of the Amakosae.

by the king. By these and similar methods the kraals of the king are kept well stocked, and he is enabled to bestow gifts upon those he may wish to conciliate or reward, or by whose services he has been benefitted. The inferior chiefs use the same means to increase their wealth, but in these eases the king is presented with a part of the acquired stock.

Laws are unknown, the chiefs rendering judgment according to their wilt, founded, however, upon custom. Most crimes are compensated by a fine of cattle: the thief by this custom is compelled to restore ten-fold to the person he has robbed. The crime is only to be proved before and to the satisfaction of the chief, when the execution of justice is committed to the party aggrieved, which instantly follows conviction. 'The chief him- self has no power to lessen the mulct; he may, however, and generally does intercede for the culprit ; if snecessful, he claims a reward for this intercession. : ;

The more heinous crimes, such as adultery and murder, are in like manner proved before the chief, and may be compensated, but the party aggrieved fixes the price; and also in this case the chief stands between the parties as an intercessor. In cases of murder, if the aggrieved person or any other should slay the offender, he is subject to no fine.

Women are entirely in the power of the men to whom they belong, and may even be put to death with impunity for any crime committed by them.

They are firm believers in witchcraft, and the punishment of the wretch who is aceused and found guilty of this offence is extreme torture, or even death, and the whole community anxiously assist in the execution of the sentence. Persons accused of crimes are generally present when the aceusation is made, and are permitted to defend themselves against the charge, and they also receive the assistance of others to effect this ; they discover great skill and ingenuity in the examination and cross-examination of witnesses.

This is not the case, however, when a charge of witchcraft, or of an offence against the person of the king, is preferred. This is made before a select council, and often the aceused is only apprised of it by these who are sent to execute the sentence ; which not unfrequently is death, or he is dragged away to a torture that is worse, and generally terminates fatally—in both cases the whole of the cattle of the accused offender is forfeited to the King.

(To be continued.)


A Notice of the Progress of the Expedition lately sent out from Liverpool to trade in the Niger. Extracted from a private Letter, dated 18th June 1833.

[Read at the South African Institution.]

‘Tue two steamers destined for the Niger, in company with a brig carrying the provisions and merchandise, touched on their way out, first at Sierra Leone, ‘and then at York, one of the villages attached to that colony, where they wooded and watered. Shortly after leaving the latter place some of the crew fell sick and died, and by the time the vessels reached Cape Coast disease had begun to make such ravages amongst both officers and men that discontent, approaching to mutiny, was actually excited. After leaving Cape Coast they proceeded to Acra,